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Updated: Jul 5 2021


  • Overview
    • Structure
      • cloverleaf structure
      • 3' aminoacyl end = CCA
        • bound covalently to amino acid (AA)
    • Charging
      • purpose
        • adds correct AA to correct tRNA
          • each AA has a specific tRNA
          • correct AA is only checked when attachment occurs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase to the tRNA
          • thus, if a AA is mischarged, it has no other correction mechanism and will insert for the AA specified by the tRNA anticodon
        • charged tRNA contains the needed energy for the formation of the peptide bond
      • process
        • tRNA + ATP + aa → aa-tRNA + AMP + PPi
        • catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
      • inhibited by tetracyclines
    • Wobble
      • first 2 nucleotide positions provide specificity for an individual amino acid
        • e.g., mRNA triplets CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG all code for Leu
      • genetic code is degenerate
        • all amino acids except for one have more than one codon
      • explains silent mutations
        • mutation from CUU to CUC would not alter the protein
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