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Updated: Sep 9 2020

RNA Types

  • Overview
    • rRNA
      • ribosomal
      • rRNA + protein = ribosome
      • most abundant of all RNA types
      • clinical importance
        • shiga- and verotoxins bind to 28S rRNA
        • inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis
    • tRNA
      • transfer
      • covalently attached to amino acids
      • provides link between genetic code and a particular amino acid
    • mRNA
      • messenger
      • carries DNA message from chromosome to translation by ribosome
    • hnRNA or pre-mRNA
      • heteronuclear
      • present only in eukaryotes
      • mRNA transcript prior to splicing
        • contains introns and exons
    • snRNA
      • small nuclear
      • present only in eukaryotes
      • functions in splicing of mRNA in the nucleus
    • Ribozymes
      • present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes
      • have intrinsic enzymatic activity
    • miRNA
      • micro
      • ↓ translation by binding to 3'-UTR of target mRNA
        • double-stranded RNA signals for degradation
      • uses Dicer and RISC enzymes in processing
      • often coded for in intron segments
      • RNAi is a synthetic lab technique that takes advantage of miRNA pathway
        • see Biochemical Model Systems topic
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