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Updated: Dec 4 2017

Universal Electron Acceptors

  • Introduction
    • Mitochondria produce significant adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylation
      • the electron transport chain (ETC) is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and receives electrons from the reduced coenzymes
        • NADH
          • this is the reduced form of NAD+
          • NAD+ → NADH + H by dehydrogenases
        • FADH2
          • this is the reduced form of FAD+
    • NAD+ and FAD+ receives electrons from the catabolism of energy-rich molecules (e.g., glucose)
      • the reduced coenzymes donate their electrons to the ETC
        • approximately 3 ATP molecules for each NADH
        • approximately 2 ATP molecules for each FADH2
    • NADPH
      • produced by the hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt
      • involved in a number of processes such as
        • the production of glutathione
        • biosynthesis/anabolic reactions
        • respiratory bursts
        • cytochrome P450 systems
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