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Updated: Jan 24 2020

Golgi Apparatus

  • Structure
    • Stacks of cisternae
    • Associated with membrane bound vesicles
    • Two faces
      • cis
        • receiving face from the ER
        • input to the Golgi
        • convex shape
      • trans
        • exports away from Golgi
        • location of trans-Golgi network
        • faces plasma membrane
        • concave shape
  • Function
    • Post-translational peptide modification
      • addition of
        • N-oligosaccharides on asparagine (amino-group)
        • O-oligosaccharides on serine and threonine (hydroxyl-group)
        • mannose-6-phosphate
          • designates transport to lysosome
            • deficient in I-cell disease
              • see Lysosome topic
        • sulfation of tyrosines
      • cleavage of propeptides
        • peptidase cleaves proinsulin to insulin + C-peptide
          • deficient in hyperproinsulinemia
            • presents similar to NIDDM
    • Packaging/distribution of proteins and lipids
      • received from ER (adds amino acid residues that golgi later modifies)
        • via coat protein complex (COP) II
          • this protein initiates budding process
          • RER→ cis-Golgi = anterograde
            • anterograde movement mediated by COP II
          • Golgi → ER = retrograde
            • retrograde movement mediated by COP I
      • leaves Golgi headed towards several destinations
        • plasma membrane
        • lysosomes
        • secretory vesicles
        • mediated by clathrin
    • Proteoglycan assembly
      • sulfation of sugars
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