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Updated: Jan 4 2021

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
    • Structure
      • composed of a lipid membrane with membrane bound ribosomes
      • lipid membrane is continuous with nuclear membrane
    • Function
      • synthesis of secretory proteins
        • e.g. peptide hormones
      • addition of N-linked oligosaccharides to peptides
    • Cell biology
      • RER is found in high concentration in
        • neurons
          • termed Nissl bodies
            • stain basophilic
            • synthesize/secrete peptide neurotransmitters in prepackaged vesicles
        • pancreatic acinar cells
          • synthesize/secrete digestive enzymes
  • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
    • Structure
      • lipid membrane without membrane bound ribosomes
    • Function
      • steroid synthesis
      • detox of chemicals
        • makes compounds water soluble
        • two mechanisms
          • hydroxylation
            • via cytochrome P450 hydroxylase complex
          • conjugation
            • involves binding of polar moiety (e.g. glucuronate via glucuronyl transferase) to toxin
      • lipid metabolism
        • release of fatty acids from triglycerides
        • assembles lipoproteins for release
      • carbohydrate metabolism
        • gluconeogenesis
          • allows free glucose to be released into circulation during fasting by removing phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate
          • mediated by glucose-6-phosphatase
            • deficient in von Gierke's disease
              • glycogen storage disease type I
              • presentation
                • accumulation of glycogen in kidney and liver
                  • hepatomegaly
                • hypoglycemia
    • Cell biology
      • found in high concentrations in
        • hepatocytes
        • kidney
        • adrenal cortex
        • corpus luteum
        • muscle
          • modified SER = sarcoplasmic reticulum
            • stores and releases calcium to mediate muscle contraction
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