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Updated: Oct 24 2022

DNA Replication

  • Overview
    • Function
      • replicate cell genome in a manner that is highly accurate
    • Process
      • DNA melted to expose single strand to expose origin of replication
      • single stranded binding proteins (SSBs) bind and stabilize melted DNA
      • RNA primer added in 5' → 3' direction by primase
      • DNA polymerase adds adds nucleotides in a 5' → 3'
        • DNA polymerase III in prokaryotes
        • DNA polymerase α and δ in eukaryotes
        • can edit mistakes with a 3' → 5' exonuclease activity
        • adds continuously on the leading strand
        • adds discontinuous Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand because it must synthesize in a 5' → 3' direction
      • DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) breaks the DNA to prevent coiling
      • RNA primer removed
        • by RNAase H in eukaryotes and filled by a DNA polymerase
        • by DNA polymerase I in prokaryotes and can fill simultaneously
      • DNA ligase seals the nick between fragments
    • Differences between prokaryotes eukaryotes
      • prokaryotes
        • single origin of replication
      • eukaryotes
        • multiple origins of replication
    • Clinical importance
      • antibiotics
        • quinolones, fluoroquinolones block bacterial topoisomerase
          • used to treat aerobic gram negatives in UTIs and gonorrhea
          • e.g. drugs ending in -floxacin
      • cancer chemotherapy
        • etoposide, teniposide block eukaryotic topoisomerase
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