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Updated: Jan 20 2022


  • Overview
    • Process
      • initiation
        • RNAp binds the template DNA strand at the promoter site with the help of transcription factors
      • elongation
        • RNAp synthesizes the mRNA strand in 5' → 3' direction
          • reads template strand in 3' → 5' direction
          • eukaryotic RNAps transcribe introns as well as exons
        • RNAp inhibited by alpha-amanitin (ingestion of the amanita phalloides mushroom)
      • termination
        • prokaryotes
          • two mechanisms
            • rho-dependent
              • rho protein binds the mRNA
              • causes RNAp to fall off
            • rho-independent
              • mRNA has a GC-rich segment that naturally forms a hairpin
              • causes RNAp to fall off
        • eukaryotes
          • transcription continues past the gene and eventually falls off
    • Mono/polycistronic
      • monocistronic = mRNA codes for 1 protein
        • eukaryotes only have monocistronic mRNA
      • polycistronic = mRNA codes for >1 protein
        • e.g. bacterial lac operon
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