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Updated: Jan 24 2019

Post-Translational Modification

  • Overview
    • Covalent alterations
      • phosphorylation
        • kinase additions of phosphate groups
      • glycosylation
        • addition of oligosaccharide
        • signals for translocation into ER/Golgi
      • hydroxylation
        • allows for ↑ in hydrogen bonding
        • needed for collagen synthesis
      • γ-carboxylation
        • addition of carboxyl group
        • allows for Ca2+ binding site
        • needed for several clotting factors
      • prenylation
        • addition of farnesyl or geranylgeranyl lipid groups
        • signals for membrane insertion
    • Proteolysis
      • cleavage of N- or C- terminal propeptides
        • peptides beginning in "pro-"
      • converts zymogens to mature enzymes
        • examples
          • enzymes ending in "-ogen"
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