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Updated: Nov 28 2015

Gene Organization

  • Overview
    • Enhancer
      • function
        • allow signal transduced to ↑ transcription
        • act by binding and bending DNA such that they can act on the promoter directly
      • location
        • may be very far from gene locus
        • may be within gene locus
        • orientation does not matter
      • examples
        • glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) bind glucocorticoid
        • estrogen response elements (EREs) bind estrogen
        • cAMP response element (CREs) bind cAMP
    • Silencers
      • act in a mechanism similar to enhancers but ↓ transcription
    • Upstream promoter elements
      • function
        • allow transcription factor induced transcription ↑
      • location
        • close to gene locus
      • examples
        • CCAAT box bind NF-1
        • TATA box
    • 5'-UTR
      • untranslated region upstream of start codon
    • Kozak consensus sequence
      • GCCGCCRCCAUGG, where R is A or G three bases upstream from AUG start codon
      • plays a major role in initiation of translation
      • a mutation in the Kozak consensus sequence may cause β-thalassemia intermedia
    • Start codon
      • codes for methionine (AUG)
      • beginning of translated (coding) region
    • Coding region
      • between start codon and stop codon
      • following transcription contains introns and exons (eukaryotes)
    • Stop codon
      • UGA, UAG, UAA
      • terminates translation
    • 3'-UTR
      • untranslated region downstream of stop codon
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