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Updated: Jan 1 2020

Amino Acids

Images acid structures.jpg
  • Amino Acids
    • Structure
      • carbon attached to carboxyl group + amino group + "R" group
        • "R" group gives each of the 20 amino acids its unique properties
        • only L-form amino acids (AA) are found in proteins
    • Properties
      • hydrophobicity
        • allow for protein folding such that hydrophilic AAs face externally and hydrophobic AAs face internally
        • hydrophobic AAs have aliphatic or aromatic R-groups
        • hydrophilic AAs have oxygen or nitrogens in R-group
      • pH
        • acidic AAs are negatively charged at body pH
          • Asp, Glu
        • basic AAs are positively charged at body pH
          • Arg, His, Lys
      • essential/non-essential
        • essential AAs must be part of the diet
          • remember: PVT TIM HALL (Phe/Val/Thr/Trp/Ile/Met/His/Arg*/Lys/Leu)
            • *is essential under times of stress/demand
              • pregnancy
              • growth during childhood and adolescence
              • illness
      • catabolic product
        • glucogenic AAs can become glucose
          • Met, Val, Arg, His
        • ketogenic AAs can become ketone bodies
          • Leu, Lys
        • some AAs can become both ketone bodies or glucose
          • Ile, Phe, Thr, Trp
  • Amino Acid Derivatives
    • Tyrosine
      • thyroid hormones (T3/T4)
      • melanin
        • deficiency
          • albinism
            • cause
              • defective tyrosinase
                • inability to synthesize melanin from tyrosine
              • defective tyrosine transporters
                • ↓ amounts of tyrosine and thus melanin
              • lack of migration of neural crest cells forming melanocytes
            • presentation
              • lack of melanin ↑ risk of skin cancer
            • genetics
              • AR
              • locus heterogeneity can result in variable inheritance
              • XR for ocular albinism
      • catecholamines
        • pathway see above
    • Tryptophan
      • NAD, NADP (niacin)
      • serotonin
    • Histidine
      • histamine
    • Arginine
      • nitric oxide (NO)
    • Glutamate
      • GABA
    • Glycine
      • protoprophyrin → heme
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