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Updated: May 3 2022

Glucose Transport

  • Overview
    • Sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT)
      • function
        • transport glucose actively across lumen against concentration gradient
          • energy provided by transport of sodium down its concentration gradient
      • location
        • small intestine (SGLT1)
          • 2:1 Na+:Glu
        • proximal tubule of nephron (SGLT2)
          • 1:1 Na+:Glu
    • Glucose transporters (GLUT)
      • function
        • facilitated diffusion of glucose down concentration gradients
          • with increasing glucose concentration, rate of transport assumes a hyperbolic curve due to carrier saturation
        • divided into many subtypes that localize to different tissues
    • GLUT-1
      • function
        • basal glucose uptake
          • high affinity
            • transporters saturated at normal blood glucose levels
            • ensures glucose entry to cells
      • location
        • wide distribution in tissues in the body (brain, erythrocytes, endothelial cells, cornea etc.)
    • GLUT-2
      • function
        • low affinity glucose uptake
          • in the fasting state glucose does not enter cells
          • mediates glucose surplus storage in liver when blood glucose levels rise
          • facilitates insulin release in β-cells
      • location
        • hepatocytes
        • pancreatic β-cells
        • kidney
        • small intestines
    • GLUT-3
      • function
        • high affinity glucose uptake
          • glucose preferentially accessed by neurons in low-glucose states
      • location
        • brain
        • neurons
    • GLUT-4
      • function
        • insulin-controlled uptake of glucose
        • basal level of glucose intake without insulin
          • presence of insulin ↑ translocation of transporters to the cell membrane
            • ↑↑↑ glucose uptake
            • also stimulated by exercise
      • location
        • adipocytes
        • myocytes
        • cardiomyocytes
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