Updated: 5/2/2017

tRNA

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Overview
  •  Structure
    • cloverleaf structure
    • 3' aminoacyl end = CCA 
      • bound covalently to amino acid (AA)
  • Charging 
    • purpose
      • adds correct AA to correct tRNA
        • each AA has a specific tRNA
        • correct AA is only checked when attachment occurs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase to the tRNA
        • thus, if a AA is mischarged, it has no other correction mechanism and will insert for the AA specified by the tRNA anticodon
      • charged tRNA contains the needed energy for the formation of the peptide bond
    • process
      • tRNA + ATP + aa aa-tRNA + AMP + PPi
      • catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
    • inhibited by tetracyclines
  • Wobble 
    • first 2 nucleotide positions provide specificity for an individual amino acid
      • e.g., mRNA triplets CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG all code for Leu
    • genetic code is degenerate
      • all amino acids except for one have more than one codon
    • explains silent mutations
      • mutation from CUU to CUC would not alter the protein 
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

(M1.BC.4708) A researcher is trying to decipher how mRNA codons contain information about proteins. He first constructs a sequence of all cytosine nucleotides and sees that a string of prolines is synthesized. He knows from previous research that information is encoded in groups of 3 so generates the following sequences: ACCACCACC, CACCACCAC, and CCACCACCA. Surprisingly, he sees that new amino acids are produced with the first two sequences but that the third sequence is still a string of prolines. Which of the following biochemical principles explains why this phenomenon was observed? Review Topic

QID: 108474
1

Covalent alterations

4%

(4/90)

2

mRNA splicing

12%

(11/90)

3

Translational proofreading

4%

(4/90)

4

Trimming of proteins

2%

(2/90)

5

Wobble hypothesis

74%

(67/90)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 5

(M1.BC.74) A codon is an mRNA sequence consisting of 3 nucleotides that codes for an amino acid. Each position can be made up of any 4 nucleotides (A, U, G, C); therefore, there are a total of 64 (4 x 4 x 4) different codons that can be created but they only code for 20 amino acids. This is explained by the wobble phenomenon. One codon for leucine is CUU, which of the following can be another codon coding for leucine? Review Topic

QID: 106620
1

AUG

3%

(5/188)

2

UAA

11%

(21/188)

3

CCC

1%

(2/188)

4

CCA

6%

(11/188)

5

CUA

78%

(146/188)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 5
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(M1.BC.15) A 12-year-old boy presents to his primary care doctor with a new-onset rash (Figure A). He first noticed the rash about 3 days ago, after he returned home from summer camp. His primary doctor decides to prescribe a course of doxycycline, an antibiotic that inhibits binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the 30S ribosome subunit. Which of the following tRNA sites is the binding site for amino acids? Review Topic

QID: 100080
FIGURES:
1

5' tail

24%

(6/25)

2

Dihydrouracil arm

12%

(3/25)

3

Thymidine t-arm

12%

(3/25)

4

Anticodon

12%

(3/25)

5

CCA tail

32%

(8/25)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 5
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