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RNA Virus Table
 
(+) Strand RNA 
Picornavirus 
  Disease Treatment or Vaccine
Poliovirus 
  • Paralytic poliomyelitis (paralysis)
  • Aseptic meningitis 
  • Post-polio syndrome
  • Sabin vaccine (live)
  • SalK vaccine (Killed)
Rhinovirus 
  • Common cold (most common cause)
  • No specific treatment
Coxsackievirus 
  • Aseptic meningitis 
  • Carditis
  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease
  • Herpangia
  • Pleurodynia
  • Bornholm disease (Devil's grip)
  • No specific treatment
Echovirus 
  • Aseptic meningitis
-
Hepatitis A virus  
  • Mild acute hepatitis 
  • Killed vaccine
  • Serum globulin
Calicivirus
Norwalk virus 
  • Acute gastroenteritis (schoolchildren)
  • No specific treatment
Togavirus
Rubella virus 
  • Rubella (German measles)
  • Congenital rubella 
  • Live attenuated vaccine (MMR)
Eastern equine encephalitis -
  • Killed vaccine
Western equine encephalitis -
  • Killed vaccine
Flavivirus
Yellow fever virus 
  • Yellow fever
  • Live attenuated vaccine
Dengue 
  • Dengue ("break bone fever")
  • Supportive only
Hepatitis C virus 
  • Chronic hepatitis
  • IFN
  • Ribavirin
West Nile virus 
  • Aseptic meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Paralysis
  • Supportive only
St. Louis encephalitis 
  • Encephalitis
  • Supportive only
Coronavirus
Coronavirus 
  • Common cold
  • SARS
  • Self-limiting
Retrovirus 
HIV 
  • AIDS
  • HAART
Human T cell leukemia virus
  • T-cell leukemia
-
Hepevirus
Hepatitis E virus 
  • Mild acute hepatitis (fatal when prEgnant)
  • Self-limiting
(-) Strand RNA
Bunyavirus
Hantavirus 
  • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (50% mortality)
  • Supportive only
CA Encephalitis virus
  • Encephalitis
-
Orthomyxovirus
Influenza virus 
  • Flu
  • Zanamivir/oseltamivir
Paramyxovirus
Rubeola 
  • Measles
  • Live attenuated vaccine (MMR)
Mumps virus 
  • Mumps
  • Live attenuated vaccine (MMR)
RSV 
  • Pneumonia (infants)
  • Palivizumab
Parainfluenza 
  • Croup
  • Bronchiolitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Supportive only
Rhabdovirus
Rabies virus 
  • Rabies
  • hRIG
Arenavirus
Lassa fever virus 
  • Hemorrhagic fever (50% mortality)
  • Ribavirin
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
  • Meningitis
-
Filovirus
Ebola and marburg viruses 
  • Hemorrhagic fever (up to 90% mortality)
  • Supportive only
Double-Stranded (ds) RNA
Reovirus
Reovirus 
  • Common cold
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Self-limiting
Rotavirus 
  • Gastroenteritis (infants)
  • Self-limiting
Colorado tick fever virus
  • Flu-like
  • Supportive only
 
Virus Overview
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular infectious agents with the following basic components
    • DNA or RNA
      • never both
    • capsid
      • a protein coat that surrounds the genetic material
      • icosahedral or helical symmetry
      • made of capsomers
        • polypeptide chains organized into a globular subunit
        • in helical symmetry, capsomers are bound to RNA and coiled
          • forms a helical nucleoprotein capsid
    • sometimes an envelope
  • Viruses are classified by 
    • nucleic acid
      • DNA or RNA
      • double stranded or single stranded
      • (+) or (-) stranded RNA
      • single or segmented pieces of nucleic acid
      • complexity of genome
    • capsid
      • icosahedral or helical
    • envelope
      • naked
        • DNA or RNA + capsomers and other structural proteins = nucleocapsid
      • enveloped
        • nucleocapsid + host membrane with viral-specified glycoproteins = enveloped virus
    • size
      • diameter or number of capsomers
    • ploidy
      • all viruses are haploid (1 copy of DNA or RNA)
      • except retroviruses
        • retroviruses have 2 identical copies of their ssRNA, approximating diploidy
    • infectivity of purified nucleic acid 
      • purified nucleic acid that is intrinsically infectious
        • dsDNA from most viruses
          • except poxviridae
          • except HBV
        • (+) strand ssRNA from most viruses
          • (+) linear, nonsegmented ssRNA can be translated immediately into a large protein by host machinery
          • virus must carry protease to cleave the 1 large protein product that will be generated by the host machinery
      • purified nucleic acid that is NOT intrinsically infectious
        • (-) ssRNA
          • viruses must carry an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to generate mRNA the host machinery can read
        • dsRNA
        • they require enzymes contained in the complete virion for infectivity
RNA Viruses
  • Most RNA viruses
    • are single-stranded (ssRNA, like human mRNA)
    • have helical symmetry
    • replicate in the cytoplasm
    • are enveloped
  • Exceptions
    • double-stranded (dsRNA)
      • reo
    • icosahedral
      • reo
      • picorna
      • toga
      • flavi
      • calici
    • replicate in nucleus 
      • retro
      • orthomyxo
    • non-enveloped
      • picorna
      • calici
      • reo
 

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