Please confirm topic selection

Are you sure you want to trigger topic in your Anconeus AI algorithm?

Please confirm action

You are done for today with this topic.

Would you like to start learning session with this topic items scheduled for future?

Updated: Apr 30 2022

Bacterial Structures

Images structures.jpg
  • Structures contributing to virulence
    • Flagella
      • protein filament "tails" that allow movement and chemotaxis
        • Vibrio cholera - 1 flagella
        • E. coli - many flagella
        • Shigella - no flagella
    • Pili (fimbria)
      • shorter than flagella and immobile
      • allows some bacteria to adhere to their host
        • Neisseria
        • E. coli
      • sex pili are special types of pili used for conjugation rather than virulence
      • made of glycoproteins
    • Capsules
      • prevent phagocytosis
      • made of polysaccharide
        • except Bacillus anthracis, which contains D-glutamate
    • Endospores
      • only Bacillus and Clostridium
      • dormant form
        • no metabolic activity
      • confers resistance to hot/cold, wet/dry, and host chemical defenses
        • must autoclave to kill
      • formed at the end of stationary phase
        • when nutrients are in short supply
      • dipicolinic acid may confer heat resistance
  • Other structures
    • Cell wall (Gram-positive)
      • contains the major surface antigens of Gram-positive bacteria
        • e.g. teichoic acid → activates TNF and IL-1
      • Mycoplasma has no cell wall
      • Mycobacteria has unusual cell wall
      • disruption leads to osmotic lysis
    • Outer membrane (Gram-negative)
      • source of endotoxin in Gram-negative bacteria
    • Peptidoglycan
      • structural support
      • polymer of sugars and amino acids
    • Plasma membrane
      • composed of a lipoprotein bilayer
    • Ribosome
      • 50S and 30S subunits
      • protein synthesis
    • Plasmid
      • DNA that is separate from and replicates independently of chromosomal DNA
      • can contain genes for antibiotic resistance and toxins
    • Periplasm
      • in Gram-negative bacteria, the space between the outer membrane and the cytoplasmic membrane
      • contains β-lactamases or other hydrolytic enzymes
    • Glycocalyx
      • polysaccharide that helps bacteria adhere to host surfaces
        • e.g. catheter-associated infection
1 of 0
1 of 1
Private Note

Attach Treatment Poll
Treatment poll is required to gain more useful feedback from members.
Please enter Question Text
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options