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Updated: May 29 2019

RNA Viruses

4.1

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(9)

  • RNA Virus Table
      • (+) Strand RNA
      • Virus
      • Disease
      • Treatment or Vaccine
      • Picornavirus
      • Picornavirus
      • Picornavirus
      • Poliovirus
      • Paralytic poliomyelitis (paralysis)
      • Aseptic meningitis¬†
      • Post-polio syndrome
      • Sabin vaccine (live)
      • SalK vaccine (Killed)
      • Rhinovirus
      • Common cold (most common cause)
      • No specific treatment
      • Coxsackievirus
      • Aseptic meningitis 
      • Carditis
      • Hand, foot, and mouth disease
      • Herpangia
      • Pleurodynia
      • Bornholm disease (Devil's grip)
      • No specific treatment
      • Echovirus
      • Aseptic meningitis
      • Hepatitis A virus  
      • Mild acute hepatitis 
      • Killed vaccine
      • Serum globulin
      • Calicivirus
      • Calicivirus
      • Calicivirus
      • Norwalk virus 
      • Acute gastroenteritis (schoolchildren)
      • No specific treatment
      • Togavirus
      • Togavirus
      • Togavirus
      • Rubella virus 
      • Rubella (German measles)
      • Congenital rubella¬†
      • Live attenuated vaccine (MMR)
      • Eastern equine encephalitis
      • -
      • Killed vaccine
      • Western equine encephalitis
      • -
      • Killed vaccine
      • Flavivirus
      • Flavivirus
      • Flavivirus
      • Yellow fever virus 
      • Yellow fever
      • Live attenuated vaccine
      • Dengue
      • Dengue ("break bone fever")
      • Supportive only
      • Hepatitis C virus 
      • Chronic hepatitis
      • IFN
      • Ribavirin
      • West Nile virus 
      • Aseptic meningitis
      • Encephalitis
      • Paralysis
      • Supportive only
      • St. Louis encephalitis 
      • Encephalitis
      • Supportive only
      • Coronavirus
      • Coronavirus
      • Coronavirus
      • Coronavirus 
      • Common cold
      • SARS
      • Self-limiting
      • Retrovirus
      • Retrovirus
      • Retrovirus
      • HIV
      • AIDS
      • HAART
      • Human T cell leukemia virus
      • T-cell leukemia
      • -
      • Hepevirus
      • Hepevirus
      • Hepevirus
      • Hepatitis E virus 
      • Mild acute hepatitis (fatal when prEgnant)
      • Self-limiting
      • (-) Strand RNA
      • Bunyavirus
      • Bunyavirus
      • Bunyavirus
      • Hantavirus
      • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (50% mortality)
      • Supportive only
      • CA Encephalitis virus
      • Encephalitis
      • -
      • Orthomyxovirus
      • Orthomyxovirus
      • Orthomyxovirus
      • Influenza virus 
      • Flu
      • Zanamivir/oseltamivir
      • Paramyxovirus
      • Paramyxovirus
      • Paramyxovirus
      • Rubeola
      • Measles
      • Live attenuated vaccine (MMR)
      • Mumps virus 
      • Mumps
      • Live attenuated vaccine (MMR)
      • RSV
      • Pneumonia (infants)
      • Palivizumab
      • Parainfluenza
      • Croup
      • Bronchiolitis
      • Pneumonia
      • Supportive only
      • Rhabdovirus
      • Rhabdovirus
      • Rhabdovirus
      • Rabies virus 
      • Rabies
      • hRIG
      • Arenavirus
      • Arenavirus
      • Arenavirus
      • Lassa fever virus 
      • Hemorrhagic fever (50% mortality)
      • Ribavirin
      • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
      • Meningitis
      • -
      • Filovirus
      • Filovirus
      • Filovirus
      • Ebola and marburg viruses 
      • Hemorrhagic fever (up to 90% mortality)
      • Supportive only
      • Double-Stranded (ds) RNA
      • Reovirus
      • Reovirus
      • Reovirus
      • Reovirus 
      • Common cold
      • Gastroenteritis
      • Self-limiting
      • Rotavirus
      • Gastroenteritis (infants)
      • Self-limiting
      • Colorado tick fever virus
      • Flu-like
      • Supportive only
  • Virus Overview
    • Viruses are obligate intracellular infectious agents with the following basic components
      • DNA or RNA
        • never both
      • capsid
        • a protein coat that surrounds the genetic material
        • icosahedral or helical symmetry
        • made of capsomers
          • polypeptide chains organized into a globular subunit
          • in helical symmetry, capsomers are bound to RNA and coiled
            • forms a helical nucleoprotein capsid
      • sometimes an envelope
    • Viruses are classified by
      • nucleic acid
        • DNA or RNA
        • double stranded or single stranded
        • (+) or (-) stranded RNA
        • single or segmented pieces of nucleic acid
        • complexity of genome
      • capsid
        • icosahedral or helical
      • envelope
        • naked
          • DNA or RNA + capsomers and other structural proteins = nucleocapsid
        • enveloped
          • nucleocapsid + host membrane with viral-specified glycoproteins = enveloped virus
      • size
        • diameter or number of capsomers
      • ploidy
        • all viruses are haploid (1 copy of DNA or RNA)
        • except retroviruses
          • retroviruses have 2 identical copies of their ssRNA, approximating diploidy
      • infectivity of purified nucleic acid
        • purified nucleic acid that is intrinsically infectious
          • dsDNA from most viruses
            • except poxviridae
            • except HBV
          • (+) strand ssRNA from most viruses
            • (+) linear, nonsegmented ssRNA can be translated immediately into a large protein by host machinery
            • virus must carry protease to cleave the 1 large protein product that will be generated by the host machinery
        • purified nucleic acid that is NOT intrinsically infectious
          • (-) ssRNA
            • viruses must carry an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to generate mRNA the host machinery can read
          • dsRNA
          • they require enzymes contained in the complete virion for infectivity
  • RNA Viruses
    • Most RNA viruses
      • are single-stranded (ssRNA, like human mRNA)
      • have helical symmetry
      • replicate in the cytoplasm
      • are enveloped
    • Exceptions
      • double-stranded (dsRNA)
        • reo
      • icosahedral
        • reo
        • picorna
        • toga
        • flavi
        • calici
      • replicate in nucleus
        • retro
        • orthomyxo
      • non-enveloped
        • picorna
        • calici
        • reo
        • hepe
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