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A 37-year-old female presents to her primary care physician with constipation and abdominal pain. She notes that the pain has been present for several days and is not related to food. She also reports increased urinary frequency without incontinence, as well as increased thirst. She takes no medications, but notes taking vitamin supplements daily. Her vital signs are: BP 130/72 mmHg, HR 82 bpm, T 97.0 degrees F, and RR 12 bpm. Lab studies reveal: Na 139, K 4.1, Cl 104, HCO3 25, Cr 0.9, and Ca 12.4. Further studies show an increased ionized calcium, decreased PTH, and increased phosphate. What is the most likely cause of this patient's symptoms?
Primary endocrine dysfunction
Plasma cell neoplasm
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A 19-year-old African female refugee has been granted asylum in Stockholm, Sweden and has been living there for the past month. She arrived in Sweden with her 2-month-old infant, whom she exclusively breast feeds. Which of the following deficiencies is the infant most likely to develop?
You are counseling a pregnant woman who plans to breast-feed exclusively regarding her newborn's nutritional requirements. The child was born at home and the mother only plans for her newborn to receive vaccinations but no other routine medical care. Which vitamins should be given to the newborn?
Vitamin K and Vitamin D
A 73-year-old male presents to the the clinic with lumbar pain and symmetrical bone pain in his legs and arms. He has trouble going up to his bedroom on the second floor and getting up from a chair. Past medical history reveals that he has had acid reflux for the past 5 years that is refractory to medications (PPIs & H2 antagonists); thus, he had decided to stay away from foods which have previously given him heartburn - red meats, whole milk, salmon - and has eaten a mainly vegetarian diet. Which of the following processes is most likely decreased in this male?
Degradation of branched chain amino acids
Degradation of hexosaminidase A
A 6-month-old boy presents with decreased growth, pigmented retinopathy, hemolytic anemia, and peripheral neuropathy. You suspect that these signs are the result of a vitamin deficiency leading to increased fatty acid oxidation. Which of the following is most likely responsible for this patient's symptoms?
Goat milk ingestion
Excessive boiling of formula
An eighteen-month-old female recently emigrated from India with her parents. She presents with a macular-papular skin rash and croup. Two days prior to eruption of her skin rash, her pediatrician noted the following small, red, irregularly-shaped spots with blue-white centers on her oral mucosa, shown in Figure A. You diagnose her with a communicable disease. Which of the following vitamins should supplement her treatment?