Updated: 2/4/2018


Review Topic
Protozoa Table 
GI Infections 
Protozoa Disease Treatment
Giardia lamblia
  • Giardiasis (fatty diarrhea)
  • Metronidazole
Entamoeba histolytica
  • Amebiasis (bloody diarrhea and red liver abscesses)
  • Metronidazole
Cryptosporidium (C. parvum, C. isospora belli, and C. cyclospora cayetanensis)
  • Diarrhea


  • Supportive only


  • Diarrhea
  • Supportive only
CNS Infections 
Toxoplasma gondii
  • Toxoplasmosis (brain abscesses in AIDS)
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis 
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Pyrimethamine
Naegleria fowleri
  • Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)
  • Amphotericin B
Trypanosoma gambiense/rhodesiense
  • African sleeping sickness
  • Suramin
  • Melarsoprol
  • Granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE)
  • Keratitis (corneal infection)
  • Azoles
Visceral Infections 
Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Chagas' disease
  • Nifurtimox
Leishmania donovani
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Sodium stibogluconate
Hematologic Infections 
Plasmodium (P. vivax,  P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. falciparum)
  • Malaria
  • Chloroquine
  • Primaquine
  • Mefloquine
  • Babesiosis (like mild malaria)
  • Quinine
Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Vaginitis
  • Metronidazole
Protozoa Introduction
  • Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotes
  • Cyst vs. trophozoite forms
    • in stressed environments, protozoa secrete a protective coat and shrink to a cyst form
      • cysts are ingested by humans, leading to disease
    • once inside a host, the protozoa convert back to their motile feeding form, the trophozoite form

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