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A 45-year-old male seismologist with a 10-year history of AIDS returns from a two-month long stay in Los Angeles three weeks ago and is hospitalized for concurrent pneumonia, meningitis, and vertebral osteomyelitis. A sputum sample was taken and shown to have spherules containing spores (Figure A). Treatment was initiated with a systemic medication that causes fever and chills upon infusion. Which of the following is the mechanism of action of this medication?
Inhibits ergosterol synthesis
Binds to ergosterol, forming destructive pores in cell membrane
Inhibits squalene epoxidase
Inhibits formation of beta glucan
Inhibits pyrimidine synthesis
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A 15-year-old year male with a prior history of a kidney transplant presents to his pediatrician complaining of cough, fatigue, and fever after returning from visiting his father for two months in Wisconsin for the spring. He is treated empirically with antibiotics for a possible lower respiratory tract infection. Three weeks goes by and his symptoms do not resolve; he is now experiencing lower back pain and returns to the pediatrician. A spinal tap is performed, and a methenamine silver stained is performed showing a specimen with broad-base budding (Figure A). Which of the following treatments would eliminate the causative agent by binding to ergosterol in the membrane altering the permeability of the membrane?
A 35-year-old African American male is admitted to the hospital following a recent diagnosis of systemic histoplasmosis and subsequently treated with an intravenous anti-fungal agent. During the course of his hospital stay, he complains of headaches. Work-up reveals hypotension, anemia, and elevated BUN and creatinine. His medication is known to cause these side-effects through its binding of cell membrane ergosterol. With which anti-fungal is he most likely being treated?