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Updated: Jul 8 2019

Antibiotics

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  • Overview by Mechanism
      • Antibiotic Grouping by Mechanism
      • Cell wall synthesis inhibitors
      • Penicillins
      • Cephalosporins 
      • Vancomycin
      • Beta-lactamase inhibitors
      • Carbepenems
      • Aztreonam
      • Polymycin
      • Bacitracin
      • Protein synthesis inhibitors
      • Inhibit 30S subunit
        • Aminoglycosides (gentamicin)
        • Tetracyclines
      • Inhibit 50S subunit
        • Macrolides 
        • Chloramphenicol
        • Clindamycin
        • Linezolid
        • Streptogramins
      • DNA synthesis inhibitors
      • Fluoroquinolones
      • Metronidazole
      • RNA synthesis inhibitors
      • Rifampin
      • Mycolic acid synthesis inhibitors
      • Isoniazid
      • Folic acid synthesis inhibitors
      • Sulfonamides
      • Trimethoprim
  • Classification & Indications
      • Penicillins (Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitor)
      • (Bactericidal: inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via competitive inhibition of the transpeptidase enzyme)
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • Penicillin
      • Penicillin G
      • Aqueous (crystalline) penicillin G
      • Procaine penicillin G
      • Benzathine penicillin G
      • Penicillin V
      • S. pnuemoniae
      • S. pyogenes (group A strep)
      • N. meningitidis
      • T. pallidum
      • L. monocytogenes
      • A. israelii
      • P. multocida
      • Aminopenicillins
      • Ampicillin
      • Amoxicillin
      • ↑ gram-negative coverage
      • Enterococci (group D strep)
      • All others listed above
      • Penicillinase-resistant penicillins 
      • Methicillin
      • Nafcillin
      • Oxacillin
      • Cloxacillin
      • Dicloxacillin
      • Penicillinase-producing S. aureus
      • All others listed above
      • Antipseudomonal penicillins 
      • Carbenicillin
      • Ticarcillin
      • Piperacillin
      • P. aeruginosa
      • Anaerobic bacteria
      • All others listed above
      • Cephalosporins (Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitor)
      • (Bactericidal: inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via competitive inhibition of the transpeptidase enzyme)
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • 1st generation 
      • Cefazolin
      • Cephalexin
      • Gram-positives
      • Some gram-negatives
      • Skin infection prophylaxis
      • 2nd generation
      • Cefoxitin
      • Cefaclor
      • Cefuroxime
      • Gram-positives
      • Improved gram-negative coverage
      • Anaerobes
      • 3rd generation
      • Ceftriaxone
      • Cefotaxime
      • Ceftazidime
      • Serious gram-negative infections
      • Meningitis
      • Pseudomonas
      • 4th generation
      • Cefepime
      • Same coverage as cephalosporins + expanded Pseudomonas coverage + expanded gram-positive coverage
      • 5th generation
      • Ceftaroline
      • Expanded gram-positive and gram-negative coverage
      • Non-suitable coverage of Pseudomonas
      • Other Cell Wall Inhibitors (Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitor)
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • Vancomycin                 
      • bactericidal: inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by disrupting peptioglycan cross linking)
      • Vancomycin
      • MRSA
      • Patients with PCN or ceph allergies
      • S aureus
      • S epidermidis
      • C. difficile
      • Beta-lactamase inhibitors
      • beta-lactamse inhibitors that  prevent the degradation of beta-lactam antibiotics
      • Clavulanic acid
      • Sulbactam
      • Tazobactam
      • Gram-positive
      • S. aureus
      • S. epidermis
      • Gram-negative
      • E. coli
      • Klebsiella
      • Carbapenems 
      • Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis
      • Imipenem (+ cilastatin)
      • Meropenem
      • Doripenem
      • Ertapenem
      • Broadest activity of any antibiotic
        • does NOT cover MRSA, Mycoplasma, and some Pseudomonas
      • Aztreonam 
      • inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis
      • Aztreonam
      • Gram-negative rods
      • Aerobes
      • Difficult-to-treat hospital-acquired infections
      • Polymyxins 
      • Polymyxin B
      • Polymyxin E
      • Topical gram-negative infections
      • Bacitracin
      • Bacitracin
      • Topical gram-positive infections
      • Anti-30S Ribosomal Subunit (Protein Synthesis Inhibitor)
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • Aminoglycosides 
      • bactericidal
      • Gentamicin
      • Neomycin
      • Amikacin
      • Tobramycin
      • Streptomycin
      • Severe gram-negative infections
      • Aerobes only
      • Tetracyclines
      • bacteriostatic
      • Tetracycline
      • Doxycycline
      • Minocycline
      • Demeclocycline
      • Chlamydia
      • Rickettsia
      • Bacteria without peptidoglycan cell walls
      • Spirochetes
      • V. cholerae
      • H. pylori
      • Anti-50S Ribosomal Subunit (Protein Synthesis Inhibitor)
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • Macrolides
      • Erythromycin
      • Azithromycin
      • Clarithromycin
      • Outpatient URI, LRI
      • Atypical pneumonia
      • STDs
      • Gram-positive cocci
      • Chloramphenicol 
      • bacteriostatic
      • Chloramphenicol
      • H. influenzae
      • Bacterial meningitis
      • Brain abscess
      • Bacteroides fragilis
      • Clindamycin 
      • bacteriostatic
      • Clindamycin
      • Anaerobes above the diaphragm
      • Female GU
      • TSS
      • Linezolid
      • variable
      • Linezolid
      • Resistant gram-positives (MRSA, VRE)
      • Streptogramins
      • Quinupristin
      • Dalfopristin
      • VRE
      • GAS and S. aureus skin infections
      • Note: bacteriocidal when used together
      • Fluoroquinolones (DNA Synthesis Inhibitors)
      • (Bactericidal: inhibit DNA gyrase enzyme, inhibiting DNA synthesis)
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • 1st generation
      • Nalidixic acid
      • Gram-negative UTIs
      • 2nd generation 
      • Ciprofloxacin
      • Norfloxacin
      • Enoxacin
      • Ofloxacin
      • Levofloxacin
      • Gram-negative UTIs
      • Gram-negative GI tract
      • Pseudomonas
      • 3rd generation 
      • Gatifloxacin
      • As above + gram-positives
      • 4th generation 
      • Moxifloxacin
      • Gemifloxacin
      • As above + gram-positives + anaerobes
      • Other DNA Inhibitors (DNA Synthesis Inhibitors)
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • x
      • Metronidazole
      • bacteridical: metabolic byproducts disrupt DNA
      • Metronidazole (Flagyl)
      • Bacteria AND protozoa
      • Anaerobes below the diaphragm
      • C. difficile
      • H. pylori
      • RNA Synthesis Inhibitors
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • Rifampin
      • bactericidal: inhibits RNA transcription
      • Rifampin
      • TB
      • Leprosy
      • H. influenzae prophylaxis
      • Antistaphylococcal
      • Mycolic Acids Synthesis Inhibitors
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • Isoniazid
      • Isoniazid
      • TB
      • Latent TB
      • Folic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
      • Class
      • Name of Drug(s)
      • Indications
      • Sulfonamides
      • Sulfamethoxazole (SMX)
      • Sulfisoxazole
      • Sulfadiazine
      • Respiratory (S. pneumoniaeH. influenzae)
      • GI (enterics)
      • UTIs
      • PCP and T. gondii
      • Trimethoprim
      • Trimethoprim
      • See Sulfonamides
      • Pyrimethamine 
      • Pyrimethamine
      • Malaria
      • T. gondii
      • Miscellaneous
      • Drugs
      • Mechanism of Action
      • Indications and Side Effects
      • Pyrazinamide
      • Uncertain mechanism: potentially accumulates in cells disrupting membrane potential and fatty acid synthesis
      • Part of RIPE therapy for TB
      • Can cause hyperuricemia and hepatoxicity
      • Ethambutol
      • Inhibits arabinosyltransferase (inhibiting production of mycobacterium cell wall)
      • Part of RIPE therapy for TB and used for M. avium-intracellulare
      • Can cause optic neuropathy (red-green color blindness)
      • Daptomycin
      • Lipopeptide that disrupts cell membrane
      • Multi-resistant gram-positives such as MRSA and VRE
      • Can cause myopathy (elevated CK and rhabdomyolysis
      • Ineffective in lung infections as drug cannot distinguish between surfactant lipid layer and bacterial membranes, thus is sequestered in surfactant
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