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Introduction
  • Normal flora
    • diverse bacteria colonize our skin and mucous membranes
      • relatively stable flora throughout life
    • effects on the body
      • may be beneficial (e.g., produce nutrients)
      • may be harmful (e.g., cause abscesses or skin and soft tissue infections)
      • no benefit or harm
    • neonates are born sterile but are very rapidly colonized by bacteria after birth
    • sterile areas are areas that do not come into contact with the external environment but can become infected
      • brain and spinal cord
      • lungs
      • blood
      • heart
      • bone
Normal Bacterial Flora
Site Predominant Bacteria
Skin

  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Propionibacterium acnes
Nose
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Staphylococcus aureus (in some people)
Oropharynx
  • Anaerobes
  • Viridans group Streptococcus
  • Streptococcus mutans (grows on biofilms on teeth)
Gastrointestinal tract
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Anaerobes
    • Bacteroides
  • Escherichia coli
Urogenital tract
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Escherichia coli
  • Group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)
  • Lactobacillus
 

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