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Snapshot
  • A 55-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with fatigue and abdominal pain. Her symptoms are associated with dysuria, hematuria, and increased urinary frequency. Physical examination is remarkable for bilateral flank pain, suprapubic tenderness, and costovertebral angle tenderness. Urine studies are obtained and she is started on empiric antibiotics. Urine cultures grows Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (Pyelonephritis secondary to Pseudomonas infection)
Introduction
  • Aerobic, non-lactose fermenting, oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacillus
  • Pathogenesis
    • phospholipase C
      • produced to degrade cell membranes
    • endotoxin, which leads to
      • fever
      • hypotension
      • disseminated intravascular coagulation
    • exotoxin A
      • this inactivates elongation factor 2 (EF-2), which stops protein synthesis via ADP ribosylation
    • pyoverdine and pyocyanin pigment
      • leads to a blue-green pigment

Associated Conditions
Conditions
Comments
Pneumonia
-
Sepsis
-
Ecythma gangrenosum 
  • Seen in severely ill and immunocompromised patients
Urinary tract infections -
Diabetes -
Osteomyelitis
  • Can be seen in patients with puncture wounds
Nosocomial infections
  • Such as catheter-associated and ventilator-associated infections
Skin infections
  • Hot tub folliculitis
  • Wound infections in burn victims
Cystic fibrosis (CF)
  • Its mucoid polysaccharide capsule may play a role in chronic pneumonia seen in CF patients
    • most common microbe isolated in adults with cystic fibrosis
 
Treatment
  • Prompt antibiotic administration is associated with improved mortality
  • In addition to antibiotic treatment, source control is important (e.g., abscess drainage and removal of the catheter)
  • Treatment options include
    • carbapenems
    • aminoglycosides
    • monobactams
    • polymyxins
    • fluoroquinolones
    • third and fourth generation cephalosporins
    • piperacillin
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

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(M1.MC.4754) A 45-year-old male presents to his primary care physician complaining of drainage from his left great toe. He has had an ulcer on his left great toe for over eight months. He noticed increasing drainage from the ulcer over the past week. His past medical history is notable for diabetes mellitus on insulin complicated by peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy. His most recent hemoglobin A1c was 9.4%. He has a 25 pack-year smoking history. He has multiple sexual partners and does not use condoms. His temperature is 100.8°F (38.2°C), blood pressure is 150/70 mmHg, pulse is 100/min, and respirations are 18/min. Physical examination reveals a 1 cm ulcer on the plantar aspect of the left great toe surrounded by an edematous and erythematous ring. Exposed bone can be palpated with a probe. There are multiple small cuts and bruises on both feet. A bone biopsy reveals abundant gram-negative rods that do not ferment lactose. The pathogen most likely responsible for this patient’s current condition is also strongly associated with which of the following conditions? Review Topic

QID: 108951
1

Otitis externa

61%

(55/90)

2

Gastroenteritis

11%

(10/90)

3

Waterhouse-Friedrichsen syndrome

16%

(14/90)

4

Rheumatic fever

4%

(4/90)

5

Toxic shock syndrome

6%

(5/90)

M1

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SUBMIT RESPONSE 1

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(M1.MC.4723) A 37-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician after returning from her honeymoon in Cancun. A few days ago, she began to notice an eruption of small red bumps that cover her torso, back, and buttocks. The patient first thought she had acne, but became worried when the rash continued to itch. The patient denies other symptoms. Vital signs are within normal limits. Physical exam is notable for red papules and pustules scattered across the trunk, abdomen, back, and buttocks, while sparing the limbs. Closer examination indicates inflammation of the hair follicles. Culture yields motile, gram-negative rods that are non-lactose fermenting and oxidase positive. What other finding is commonly observed in the culture of the most likely organism? Review Topic

QID: 108525
1

Pink colonies

8%

(16/213)

2

Blue-green pigment

58%

(124/213)

3

Alpha-hemolysis

10%

(22/213)

4

Yellow sulfur granules

14%

(30/213)

5

Red pigment

6%

(13/213)

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