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Part of the success of the Streptococcus pyogenes bacterium lies in its ability to evade phagocytosis. Which of the following helps in this evasion?
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A 10-year-old male is taken to his physician by his parents due to a sore throat. A throat swab and culture reveal the growth seen in Figure A. The bacteria are gram-positive and bacitracin inhibits their growth. The child is given treatment and sent home. Twenty years later, the patient presents to the emergency department with dyspnea on exertion and CXR showed an enlarged cardiac silhouette and pulmonary edema. The patient's current symptomatology most likely occurred secondary to which of the following?
Type III hypersensitivity reaction
Type I hypersensitivty reaction
A 14-year-old male is brought to the Emergency Department by his mother. She is worried because his face has become puffy and his urine has turned a tea-color. Patient history reveals the child recently suffered from a sore throat. The physician suspects a bacterial infection. Which of the following describes the likely bacteria responsible?
About two weeks ago, an 11-year-old boy fell from his bicycle into some rose bushes and received superficial lacerations on his hands and arms. His mother bandaged up his wounds, and after a week she noticed that a localized pustular rash with yellow crusts developed on his right forearm (see Figure A). The child was taken to the pediatrician and a wound culture was taken that showed catalase-negative, beta-hemolytic Gram-positive cocci in chains. Which of the following agents is responsible for the infection?
A 53-year-old female presents with worsening shortness of breath with activity. Physical exam reveals a diastolic murmur with an opening snap. The patient’s medical history is significant for a left hip replacement 10 years ago, and she vaguely recalls an extended period of illness as a child described as several severe episodes of sore throat followed by rash, fever, and joint pains. Administration of which of the following treatments at that time would have been most effective in reducing her risk of developing cardiac disease?