Updated: 1/24/2020

Golgi Apparatus

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Structure 
  • Stacks of cisternae 
  • Associated with membrane bound vesicles
  • Two faces
    • cis
      • receiving face from the ER
      • input to the Golgi
      • convex shape
    • trans
      • exports away from Golgi
      • location of trans-Golgi network
      • faces plasma membrane
      • concave shape 
Function
  • Post-translational peptide modification 
    • addition of
      • N-oligosaccharides on asparagine (amino-group)
      • O-oligosaccharides on serine and threonine (hydroxyl-group)
      • mannose-6-phosphate 
        • designates transport to lysosome
          • deficient in I-cell disease  
            • see Lysosome topic 
      • sulfation of tyrosines
    • cleavage of propeptides
      • peptidase cleaves proinsulin to insulin + C-peptide
        • deficient in hyperproinsulinemia
          • presents similar to NIDDM
  • Packaging/distribution of proteins and lipids 
    • received from ER (adds amino acid residues that golgi later modifies)
      • via coat protein complex (COP) II
        • this protein initiates budding process
        • RER→ cis-Golgi = anterograde
          • anterograde movement mediated by COP II
        • Golgi → ER = retrograde
          • retrograde movement mediated by COP I
    • leaves Golgi headed towards several destinations
      • plasma membrane
      • lysosomes
      • secretory vesicles
      • mediated by clathrin
  • Proteoglycan assembly
    • sulfation of sugars
 

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