Updated: 12/4/2017

Universal Electron Acceptors

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Introduction
  • Mitochondria produce significant adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylation
    • the electron transport chain (ETC) is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and receives electrons from the reduced coenzymes
      • NADH
        • this is the reduced form of NAD+
        • NAD+  NADH + H by dehydrogenases
      • FADH2
        • this is the reduced form of FAD+
  • NAD+ and FAD+ receives electrons from the catabolism of energy-rich molecules (e.g., glucose)
    • the reduced coenzymes donate their electrons to the ETC
      • approximately 3 ATP molecules for each NADH
      • approximately 2 ATP molecules for each FADH2
  • NADPH
    • produced by the hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt  
    • involved in a number of processes such as
      • the production of glutathione 
      • biosynthesis/anabolic reactions
      • respiratory bursts
      • cytochrome P450 systems
 

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