Updated: 1/24/2019

Post-Translational Modification

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Overview 
  •  Covalent alterations
    • phosphorylation
      • kinase additions of phosphate groups
    • glycosylation
      • addition of oligosaccharide
      • signals for translocation into ER/Golgi
    • hydroxylation 
      • allows for ↑ in hydrogen bonding
      • needed for collagen synthesis
    • γ-carboxylation
      • addition of carboxyl group
      • allows for Ca2+ binding site
      • needed for several clotting factors
    • prenylation
      • addition of farnesyl or geranylgeranyl lipid groups
      • signals for membrane insertion
  • Proteolysis
    • cleavage of N- or C- terminal propeptides
      • peptides beginning in "pro-"
    • converts zymogens to mature enzymes
      • examples
        • enzymes ending in "-ogen"
 

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