Updated: 5/4/2017

Population Genetics

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Overview
  • Forces responsible for genetic variation
    • mutation
      • de novo mutation rates constant among populations
        • intrinsic error rate in DNA polymerase
    • founder effect
      • if one member of a small community carries a triat, as the population expands there will be a higher frequency of that trait in the new community than there is in the general population
      • Ex.) Pennsylvania Amish and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome
    • genetic drift 
      • a dramatic change in allele frequency based on chance
        • small populations are more vulnerable to genetic drift
    • natural selection
      • ↑ in allelic frequency that ↑ species fitness
      • ↓ in allelic frequency that ↓ species fitness
      • some genes ↑ species fitness as heterozygote but ↓ species fitness as a homozygote
        • ex.) sickle cell trait lowers malarial infections, while sickle cell anemia is detrimental
    • bottleneck
      • Even when fitness is equal for all phenotypes, a population bottleneck can result in disrupted allelic frequencies or loss of a genotype all together by chance
    • gene flow
      • transfer of alleles from one population to another
  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    • states that genotype and allele frequencies remain constant through generations
    • disease prevalence equation
      • p2+ 2pq + q2 = 1
        • where p = frequency of allele A
        • where q = frequency of allele B
        • p2 = frequency of homozygous individuals for allele A
        • q2 = frequency of homozygous individuals for allele B
        • 2pq = frequency of heterozygotes
    • requirements for validity
      • large population
      • random mating 
    • the genotypic frequencies of the population will remain stable from generation to generation
    • assumptions
      • no mutation
      • no selection for any of the genotypes at the locus
      • no migration
    • other notes
      • prevalence of an X-linked recessive disease in males = q
        • prevalence of an X-linked recessive disease in females = q2
      • possible to assume in most cases that p = 1 as the wild-type allele is approximately 1

 

 

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Questions (3)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

(M1.BC.27) A 21-year-old female presents to the clinic requesting prenatal counseling. She was born with a disease that has led her to have recurrent upper respiratory infections throughout her life requiring antibiotic prophylaxis and chest physiotherapy as well as pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. She marries a man (without this disease phenotype) from a population where the prevalence of this disease is 1/100. What is the chance that their child will have the disease of interest? Review Topic

QID: 107015
1

9/100

36%

(8/22)

2

1/10

23%

(5/22)

3

18/100

18%

(4/22)

4

81/100

5%

(1/22)

5

9/10

14%

(3/22)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 1
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(M1.BC.27) Red-green color blindness, an X-linked recessive disorder, has an incidence of 1/200 in males in a certain population. What is the probability of a phenotypically normal male and female having a child with red-green color blindness? Review Topic

QID: 107024
1

1/200

21%

(43/202)

2

199/200

5%

(10/202)

3

1/100

16%

(33/202)

4

1/400

44%

(89/202)

5

99/100

8%

(17/202)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 4
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