Updated: 12/21/2019

Metabolism of Exercise and Starvation

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Metabolism of Exercise States
  • 100 meter sprint
    • energy source used
      • pre-synthesized ATP
      • creatine phosphate
      • anaerobic glycolysis
  • 100 meters to 1 kilometer
    • energy source used
      • oxidative phosphorylation
  • 1 kilometer to a marathon
    • energy source used
      • glycogen
      • β-oxidation of fatty acids
Metabolism of Exercise States
  • Absorptive state
    • immediately after eating
    • insulin in control
      • insulin-sensitive tissues
        • adipocytes
        • myocytes
        • hepatocytes
      • pathways favored by insulin
        • glycogenesis
        • fatty acid synthesis
        • glucose uptake in fat, muscle, liver
        • protein anabolism
      • insulin-resistant tissues
        • brain
        • RBCs
  • Post-absorptive state
    • between meals
    • epinephrine/glucagon in control
      • glucagon-sensitive tissues
        • adipocytes
        • hepatocytes
      • pathways favored by glucagon
        • glycogenolysis
        • fatty acid catabolism
        • protein catabolism
        • gluconeogenesis
      • glucagon-resistant tissues
        • brain
        • RBCs
  • Starvation
    • days 1-3
      • main source of energy for body
        • catabolism of triglycerides in fat stores
      • main source of energy for brain
        • glucose from gluconeogenic conversion of lactate and alanine
    • > 3 days
      • main source of energy for body
        • catabolism of triglycerides in fat stores
      • main source of energy for brain
        • mostly glucose with some ketone bodies
    • > several weeks
      • main source of energy
        • degradation of muscle and organs
          • after adipose tissue store have been exhausted
      • main source of energy for brain
        • 2/3 ketone bodies
        • 1/3 glucose
    • note: RBCs are always dependent on glucose

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