Updated: 9/9/2020

RNA Types

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Overview
  •  rRNA
    • ribosomal
    • rRNA + protein = ribosome
    • most abundant of all RNA types
    • clinical importance
      • shiga- and verotoxins bind to 28S rRNA
      • inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis
  • tRNA
    • transfer
    • covalently attached to amino acids
    • provides link between genetic code and a particular amino acid
  • mRNA
    • messenger
    • carries DNA message from chromosome to translation by ribosome
  • hnRNA or pre-mRNA
    • heteronuclear
    • present only in eukaryotes
    • mRNA transcript prior to splicing
      • contains introns and exons
  • snRNA 
    • small nuclear
    • present only in eukaryotes
    • functions in splicing of mRNA in the nucleus
  • Ribozymes
    • present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes
    • have intrinsic enzymatic activity
  • miRNA
    • micro
    • ↓ translation by binding to 3'-UTR of target mRNA
      • double-stranded RNA signals for degradation
    • uses Dicer and RISC enzymes in processing
    • often coded for in intron segments
    • RNAi is a synthetic lab technique that takes advantage of miRNA pathway
      • see Biochemical Model Systems topic

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