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Snapshot
  • A 62-year-old man presents to the physician with complaint of fatigue and weight loss. His wife noted that he has looked thinner in the past few months, at which point he weighed himself and noted that he had unintentionally lost 10 pounds in the past few months. He has also had increased difficulty swallowing his food with occasionally choking. He has a history of alcohol use disorder and has smoked 1 pack of cigarettes daily for the past 40 years. An upper endoscopy is performed and demonstrates the finding seen in the image.
Introduction
  • Overview
    • malignancy affecting the esophagus
      • most cases of esophageal malignant tumors are due to squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma
  • Epidemiology
    • incidence
      • adenocarcinoma > squamous cell carcinoma in Western countries
        • adenocarcinoma accounts for > 60% of all esophageal cancers in the United States
      • squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant type of esophageal cancer worldwide
    • demographics
      • most common > 50 years of age
      • men > women
    • location
      • distal esophagus
        • adenocarcinoma
      • middle esophagus
        • squamous cell carcinoma
    • risk factors
      • smoking 
        • associated with squamous cell carcinoma
      • alcohol consumption 
        • associated with squamous cell carcinoma
      • Barrett esophagus
        • associated with adenocarcinoma
      • gastroesophageal reflux disease
        • associated with adenocarcinoma
      • Plummer-Vinson syndrome
        • associated with squamous cell carcinoma
  • Prognosis
    • negative factors
      • increased grade of tumor
      • metastasis to other areas of the body
Presentation
  • History
    • patients often complain of difficulty swallowing solids that progresses to difficulty swallowing liquids
  • Symptoms
    • progressive dysphagia
    • unintentional weight loss
    • bleeding
    • epigastric or retrosternal pain
    • hoarseness
    • persistent cough
  • Physical exam
    • typically normal exam unless the cancer has metastasized
      • cervical or supraclavicular lymphadenopathy (indicating metastasis)
Studies
  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
    • allows for direct visualization and biopsies if a tumor is present
  • Histology
    • squamous cell carcinoma
      • keratinocyte-like cells with intercellular bridges or keratinization
    • adenocarcinoma
      • well or moderately differentiated intestinal-type mucosa cells with well-formed tubular or papillary structures
Differential
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    • differentiating factor
      • absence of malignancy on esophageal biopsy
Treatment
  • Medical
    • chemoradiation
      • indication
        • stage I-III disease
    • systemic chemotherapy with palliative care
      • indication
        • stage IV disease
        • patients who are not candidates for surgery
  • Surgical
    • endoscopic mucosal resection
      • indication
        • stage I-III disease
    • esophagectomy or esophagogastrectomy
      • indication
        • high-grade dysplasia in a patient with Barrett esophagus that cannot be adequately treated with endoscopic resection
Complications
  • Esophageal obstruction
  • Metastasis
    • distant metastasis typically to the liver, lungs, and adrenal glands
 

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Questions (3)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.ON.13.31) A 45-year-old African American male presents to his primary care physician complaining of difficulty swallowing that was initially limited to solids but has now progressed to liquids. Biopsy of the esophagus reveals dysplastic cells, but does not show evidence of glands or increased mucin. Which of the following patient behaviors most contributed to his condition? Review Topic | Tested Concept

QID: 101088
1

Obesity

0%

(0/12)

2

Smoking

75%

(9/12)

3

Drinking extremely hot beverages

0%

(0/12)

4

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

25%

(3/12)

5

Radiation exposure in the past 6 months

0%

(0/12)

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