Updated: 1/11/2019

Cholelithiasis

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Introduction
  • Cholelithiasis
    • defined as the presence of calculi (gallstones) within the gallbladder
  • Two classes of stones include
    • pigmented stones
      • brown
        • result of common bile duct infection
        • result of bacterial-mediated release of beta-glucuronidase leading to formation of unconjugated bilirubin and glucoronic acid
        • unconjugated bilirubin levels rise and result in brown pigmented stones  
      • black
        • composed of calcium bilirubinate
        • result of ↑ liver excretion of bilirubin secondary to chronic RBC degradation
      • risk factors
        • hemoglobinopathies
        • alcoholic cirrhosis
    • cholesterol stones 
      • make up majority (80%) of gallstones
      • mixed composition
      • stone formation a sequelae of bile supersaturation with cholesterol
        • supersaturation arises from
          • ↑ cholesterol output
          • ↓ bile salts which normally solubilize cholesterol and prevent stone formation
          • ↑ estrogen (increases HMG-CoA reductase)
          • ↑ progesterone (decreases bile synthesis and causes gallblader hypomotility)
      • risk factors
        • five F's
          • Fat, Female, Forty, Flatulent, Fertile
        • oral contraceptives
        • North American Indian ancestry
        • rapid weight loss
        • Crohn's disease
        • critically ill patients (increased biliary sludge from the following)
          • total parenteral nutrition
          • prolonged fasting
Presentation
  • Symptoms 
    • 10-15% of adult population in Western industrialized nations will develop gallstones and most will be asymptomatic
    • 1-4% develop symptoms each year
    • Classic symptoms include biliary colic, nausea, and/or vomitting
      • biliary colic: sharp, colicky pain made worse with fatty food
Evaluation
  • Ultrasound 
    • abdominal/right upper quadrant ultrasound is the test of choice for gallstone disease 
  • Radiographs
    • cannot rule out stone with negative radiograph because cholesterol stones are radiolucent
    • pigment stones are radiopaque so may show up on radiograph
Treatment
  • Surgical
    • cholecystectomy
      • indications
        • recurrent biliary pain
        • biliary dyskinesia
        • calcified gallbladder
        • acute cholecystitis
        • choledocolithiasis
        • gallstone pancreatitis
      • Does NOT affect lipid absorption 
Complications
  • Cholecystitis
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Gallbladder cancer
  • Choledocolithiasis
    • calculi in the common bile duct
  • Fistula between gallbladder and small intestine
    • passed gallstone can obstruct the ileocecal valve
 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.GI.152) A 51-year-old female presents with intermittent right upper quadrant discomfort. The physician suspects she is suffering from biliary colic and recommends surgery. Following surgery, brown stones are removed from the gallbladder specimen. What is the most likely cause of the gallstone coloring? Review Topic

QID: 101209
1

E. coli infection; beta-glucoronidase release

46%

(11/24)

2

Shigella infection; HMG-CoA reductase release

8%

(2/24)

3

Shigella infection; beta-glucoronidase release

17%

(4/24)

4

Bile supersaturated with cholesterol; beta-glucoronidase release

29%

(7/24)

5

Ascaris lumbricoides infection; bile supersaturated with cholesterol

0%

(0/24)

M1

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