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Updated: Nov 15 2018

Pancreatic Enzymes

  • Overview
    • Pancreatic enzymes
      • pancreas secretes enzymes required for digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
        • carbohydrates
          • pancreas secretes α-amylase in active form
            • digests 1,4-glycosidic bonds of carbohydrates (starch)
        • lipids
          • lipase-colipase
            • pancreas secretes (active) lipase
              • hydrolyzes triglycerides → 1 monoglyceride + 2 fatty acids
              • lipase is inactivated by bile salts
              • pancreas secretes (inactive) procolipase
                • in intestinal lumen, trypsin activates procolipase
                  • procolipase (inactive) → colipase (active)
                • colipase displaces inhibitory bile salts
                  • permits digestive functions of lipase
          • phospholipase A2
            • pancreas secretes (inactive) phospholipase A2
              • in intestinal lumen, trypsin activates phospholipase A2
            • hydrolyzes phospholipids → lysolecithin + fatty acids
        • proteins
          • pancreas secretes proteases in inactive forms called proenzymes/zymogens
            • trypsinogen
            • chymotrypsinogen
            • proelastase
            • procarboxypeptidase A/B
          • activation of pancreatic proteases
            • brush-border enterokinase/enteropeptidase activates trypsinogen
              • trypsinogen (inactive) → trypsin (active)
            • trypsin catalyzes conversion of inactive precursors to active enzymes
              • trypsinogen → trypsin (positive feedback loop)
              • chymotrypsinogen → chymotrypsin
              • proelastase → elastase
              • procarboxypeptidase A/B →carboxypeptidase A/B
          • pancreatic proteases hydrolyze dietary protein to absorbable molecules
            • amino acids, dipeptides, tripeptides
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