Updated: 2/5/2019


Review Topic
  • A 55-year-old woman with a history of osteoarthritis comes into her primary care physician's office with a complaint of new indigestion. She notes that, for the past week or so, she has been experiencing discomfort in her upper abdomen, associated with meals. This has not affected her appetite, and she has not vomited up any blood or experienced any weight loss. She denies any heartburn symptoms or substance use. Her past medical history is noteworthy for osteoarthritis in her knees, and she says she has been taking naproxen as prescribed everyday for the past year and a half. She takes no other medications and is otherwise relatively healthy. (Acute gastritis)
  • An inflammatory condition of the stomach
  • No universally accepted classification system
    • the updated Sydney system (1996) is most commonly used in clinical setting based on presence of nonatrophic or atrophic tissue
  • Most classification systems still distiguish by time course in order to characterize inflammatory cell infiltrate most likely present
    • acute (erosive) 
      • protective mucosal barrier is disrupted resulting in inflammation
      • represented by neutrophilic infiltration
      • a result of
        • NSAIDs
          • ↓ gastric mucosa production via  PGE2
          • consider in patients with chronic pain conditions
        • EtOH
          • common in alcoholics
        • uremia
        • burns → Curling's ulcer 
        • brain injury 
          • ↑ vagal stimulation results in ↑ H+ production
        • Anisakis worm infestation
    • chronic (non-erosive)
      • marked by mix of mononuclear cells (plasma cells, lymphocytes, macrophages)
      • there are 2 types based on location
        • Type A (fundus/body) 
          • pernicious anemia is most common cause 
            • associated with macrocytic anemia
            • ↓ acid production (achlorhydria) resulting in hypergastrinemia
          • also associated with other autoimmune conditions (e.g. Hashimoto's thyroiditis)
          • ↑ risk for gastric carcinoma
        • Type B (antrum/pylorus)
          • caused by infection (H. pylori, herpes, CMV)
          • also caused by chronic NSAID use
          • ↑ risk of MALT lymphoma and adenocarcinoma 
  • Symptoms
    • recurrent upper abdominal pain
    • hematemesis (coffee ground emesis)
  • Endoscopy with biopsy
    • gold standard
  • H. pylori detection
    • stool antigen test
    • urease breath test
  • Acute gastritis
    • lifestyle 
      • avoidance of gastric irritants (coffee, EtOH, NSAID, etc.)
    • pharmacologic
      • proton pump inhibitor (PPI)
      • misoprostol (synthetic PGE1)
        • contraindicated in pregnancy as it has abortifacient properties
  • Chronic gastritis
    • H. pylori treatment
      • antibiotic therapy
        • 2 stages
          • PPI + amoxicillin
          • PPI + clarithromycin + tinidazole
        • bismuth compound (Pepto-Bismol)
    • pernicious anemia treatment
      • vitamin B12
    • stress ulcer treatment
      • sucralfate, H2 blocker, PPI

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Questions (5)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2

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(M1.GI.122) A previously-healthy 24-year-old male is admitted to the intensive care unit following a motorcycle crash. He sustained head trauma requiring an emergency craniotomy, has burns over 30% of his body, and a fractured humerus. His pain is managed with a continuous fentanyl infusion. Two days after admission to the ICU he develops severe hematemesis. What is the mechanism underlying the development of his hematemesis? Review Topic

QID: 100638

Gastric mucosal disruption




Increased gastric acid production




Helicobacter pylori infection




Answers 1 and 2




Fentanyl overuse




Select Answer to see Preferred Response

Topic COMMENTS (12)
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