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Updated: Jul 12 2016


  • Mechanism
    • Estrogen receptor agonist
  • Indications
    • Hypogonadism/ovarian failure
    • Menstrual abnormalities
    • Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women to treat
      • menopausal symptoms
        • e.g. hot flashes, vaginal atrophy
      • osteoporosis
        • estrogens inhibit osteoclast activity
    • Androgen-dependent prostate cancer
    • Contraindications
      • ER-positive breast cancer
      • thrombophilic disorders
  • Toxicity
    • Postmenopausal bleeding
    • Thrombophilia
    • Breast tenderness
    • Increased risk of
      • endometrial cancer
        • when estrogen is unopposed by progesterone
      • CVA
      • clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina
        • in females exposed to DES in utero
        • presents in late teens
      • breast cancer
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