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Updated: Jul 12 2019


  • Introduction
    • Failure of testes to descend into the scrotum unilaterally or bilaterally
      • normally mediated by MIF + androgens
    • Testicle most commonly located in the inguinal canal
      • can also be intra-abdominal
    • Associated conditions
      • prematurity
      • Kallmann's syndrome
      • cystic fibrosis
      • testicular feminization
  • Treatment
    • Orchidopexy
  • Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
    • Prognosis
      • most descend by 3 months
      • if natural descent does not occur by this time it must be removed surgically by 2 years
    • Complications
      • infertility
        • reduced spermatogenesis due to ↑ body temperature
      • atrophy/hyalinization of the seminiferous tubules due to ↑ body temperature
      • testicular torsion
      • seminoma/germ cell cancers
        • ↑ risk of development
        • risk also applies to contralateral testicle even if it descended normally
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