Updated: 7/12/2016

Estrogens

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Mechanism
  • Estrogen receptor agonist
Indications
  • Hypogonadism/ovarian failure
  • Menstrual abnormalities
  • Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women to treat
    • menopausal symptoms
      • e.g. hot flashes, vaginal atrophy
    • osteoporosis
      • estrogens inhibit osteoclast activity
  • Androgen-dependent prostate cancer
  • Contraindications
    • ER-positive breast cancer
    • thrombophilic disorders
Toxicity
  • Postmenopausal bleeding
  • Thrombophilia
  • Breast tenderness
  • Increased risk of
    • endometrial cancer
      • when estrogen is unopposed by progesterone
    • CVA
    • clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina
      • in females exposed to DES in utero
      • presents in late teens
    • breast cancer
 

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