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A 29-year-old G1P0 female presents at 22 weeks gestation for her first prenatal care appointment. Physical exam demonstrates a uterine size greater than expected for her gestational age and taut, shiny skin with scattered striae on her abdomen. Ultrasound examination of the fetus reveals 2.5 L of amniotic fluid (normal 1.5-2.0 L) with an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 34 (normal AFI 20-25). Which of the following fetal abnormalities or dysfunctions could have contributed to these abnormal ultrasound findings?
Posterior urethral valve
Polycystic kidney disease
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