Updated: 9/12/2017

Hydatidiform Mole

Topic
Review Topic
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Questions
4
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Evidence
4
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Snap Shot
  • A 24-year-old Asian female presents with vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain in her 10th week of pregnancy. Ultrasound of the uterus reveals a snowstorm appearance and absence of the fetus
Introduction
  • Benign placental tumor with cystic swelling of chorionic villi and trophoblastic proliferation
  • Epidemiology
    • more common in Asian women
  • Can be complete or partial
    • complete mole 
      • most common type
      • 46, XX
        • empty egg with entry of 2 sperm
        • 46 paternal chromosomes
      • no fetus
    • partial mole
      • 69 XXY, XXX 
        • 46 paternal chromosomes + 23 maternal chromosomes
      • fetus present
Presentation
  • Symptoms
    • abnormal/painless vaginal bleeding
      • typically in 4th-5th month
    • vomiting
  • Physical exam
    • abnormally enlarged uterus for gestational age
Evaluation
  • Serology
    • ↑ β-hCG
      • higher in complete mole than incomplete mole
  • Ultrasound
    • intrauterine cystic mass without fetal tissue (complete mole) or with fetal parts (incomplete mole) 
    • complete moles classically have "snowstorm" appearance with no fetus
  • Gross pathology
    • "honeycombed uterus" or "cluster of grapes" gross appearance
Treatment
  • Surgical
    • dilation and curettage
      • monitor β-hCG following treatment
        • should fall to zero
  • Medical
    • methotrexate
Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
  • Choriocarcinoma
    • may progress to choriocarcinoma
    • more common in complete moles
  • Uterine rupture
    • moles can lead to uterine rupture

 

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Questions (4)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.RP.73) A 31-year-old Asian woman presents with painless vaginal bleeding late in the first trimester of her pregnancy. She has had no prenatal care up to this point. Serum HCG levels are elevated much more than expected. You obtain an abdominal ultrasound, and observed the findings in figure A.

Which of the following is the most likely karyotype associated with this pregnancy? Review Topic

QID: 106555
FIGURES:
1

45XO

2%

(2/83)

2

47XYY

2%

(2/83)

3

46XX

66%

(55/83)

4

69XXX

12%

(10/83)

5

69XYY

14%

(12/83)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 3

(M1.RP.27) A 21-year-old Korean female in her 12th week of pregnancy presents with abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and excessive vomiting. A transvaginal ultrasound shows what appears to look like a cluster of grapes (Figure A). Serology demonstrates a significantly increased beta-HCG, and physical exam reveals an abnormally large uterus for the gestational age of the pregnancy. Subsequent genetic analysis reveals a karyotype of 46,XX. Which of the following is the most likely pathogenesis? Review Topic

QID: 107026
FIGURES:
1

Ovum fertilized by one sperm and implanted in fallopian tubes

2%

(1/55)

2

Ovum fertilized by one sperm and implanted in the uterus

7%

(4/55)

3

Ovum fertilized by two sperm

11%

(6/55)

4

Ovum fertilized by one sperm with duplication of the sperm

9%

(5/55)

5

Empty ovum feritilized by two sperm

67%

(37/55)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 5

(M1.RP.46) A 29-year-old female reports having a positive home pregnancy test result 9 weeks ago. She presents today with vaginal bleeding and complains of recent onset abdominal pain. Ultrasound of the patient’s uterus is included as Image A. Subsequent histologic analysis (Image B) reveals regions of both normal as well as enlarged trophoblastic villi. Which of the following is the most likely karyotype associated with this pregnancy? Review Topic

QID: 101264
FIGURES:
1

46 XX, both of maternal origin

8%

(3/39)

2

46 XY, both of paternal origin

15%

(6/39)

3

69 XXY

64%

(25/39)

4

47 XXY

8%

(3/39)

5

45 XO

0%

(0/39)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 3
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