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Updated: Nov 2 2018


Images sperm anatomy123.jpg
  • Overview
  • Introduction
    • A process by which spermatogonia develop into spermatozoa
      • begins at puberty
      • requires 64 days (approximately 2 months)
    • Broken down into
      • spermatogenesis
        • the formation of spermatids from spermatogenic cells
      • spermiogenesis
        • the process of spermatids maturing into mature sperm
  • Spermatogenesis
    • Spermatogenic cells are organized in poorly defined layers of progressive development between adjacent Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules
    • Spermatogonia (2N), most immature spermatogenic cells, rest on basal lamina
      • spermatogonia occupy basal compartment in seminiferous tubules
    • Spermatogonia (2N) divide by mitosis
      • produces primary spermatocytes (2N)
    • Primary spermatocytes (2N) replicate DNA (4N)
      • primary spermatocytes move across Sertoli cell - Sertoli cell junctional complexes into luminal compartment in seminiferous tubules
    • Primary spermatocytes (4N) divide by meiosis I
      • produces 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes (2N)
      • nondisjunction at this stage can lead to Klinefelter syndrome
    • Secondary spermatocytes (2N) divide by meiosis II
      • produces 4 haploid spermatids (1N)
  • Spermiogenesis
    • Spermatids (1N) differentiate into spermatozoa (1N) by an extensive remodeling process
    • Loss of cytoplasm, gain of acrosomal cap, and flagellum (tail)
      • acrosomal cap develops via Golgi apparatus
      • flagellum (tail) develops via centrioles
  • Spermatozoa
    • Head
      • acrosomal cap and nucleus
    • Tail
      • neck
      • middle piece
        • mitochondria provide energy for movement of flagellum (tail)
          • sperm motility
      • principal piece
      • end piece
    • Nutrition
      • spermatozoa feed on fructose
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