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Introduction
  • The muscles of the hand can be divided into extrinsic and intrinsic muscles
    • extrinsic hand muscles
      • these are muscles that are located outside of the hand (thus extrinsic)
        • they are located in the forearm
          • extrinsic extensor muscles of the hand are located in the posterior compartment of the forearm
          • extrinsic flexor muscles of the hand are located in the anterior compartment of the forearm
    • intrinsic hand muscles
      • these are muscles that are located inside the hand (thus intrinsic)
        • these include the
          • thenar muscles
          • hypothenar muscles
          • interosseous muscles
          • lumbricals
Thenar Muscles
  • Introduction
    • the thenar muscles form the thenar eminence on the lateral surface of the palm
    • the thenar hand muscles include 
      • Opponens pollicis
      • Abductor pollicis brevis
      • Flexor pollicis brevis
      • mnemonic: "OAF"
    • these muscles are innervated by the median nerve and are involved in fine movements of the thumb
  • Function
    • the thenar hand muscles are involved in
      • Opposition
      • Abduction
      • Flexion
      • mnemonic: "OAF"
Hypothenar Muscles
  • Introduction
    • the hypothenar muscles form the hypothenar eminence on the medial surface of the palm
    • the hypothenar muscles include 
      • Opponens digiti minimi
      • Abductor digiti minimi
      • Flexor digiti minimi
      • mnemonic: "OAF"
    • these muscles are innervated by the ulnar nerve
  • Function
    • the hypothenar muscles are involved in
      • Opposition
      • Abduction
      • Flexion
      • mnemonic: "OAF"
Interossei and Lumbricals
  • Introduction 
    • interossei 
      • can be divided into dorsal and palmar interossei
      • function
        • dorsal interossei
          • abduction of the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint
        • palmar interossei
          • adduction of the fingers at the MCP joint
        • mnemonic
          • "DAB" = Dorsals ABduct
          • "PAD" = Palmars ADduct
      • innervation
        • the dorsal and palmar interossei are innervated by the ulnar nerve
    • lumbricals 
      • there are 4 lumbrical muscles of the hand
        • they attach to the 
          • flexor digitorum profundus tendon proximally
          • tendons of the extensor expansion distally
      • function
        • flexion of the MCP joint 
        • extension the interphalangeal (IP) joints
      • innervation
        • the median nerve innervates the lateral lumbricals (the 1st and 2nd lumbrical)
        • the ulnar nerve innervates the medial lumbricals (the 3rd and 4th lumbrical)

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