Please confirm topic selection

Are you sure you want to trigger topic in your Anconeus AI algorithm?

Please confirm action

You are done for today with this topic.

Would you like to start learning session with this topic items scheduled for future?

Updated: Nov 7 2023

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

  • Snapshot
    • A 61-year-old male presents with left-sided hand weakness and trouble with walking. He is not sure why these symptoms occur. On physical exam, tongue fasciculations are appreciated. He has slow speech. The left upper extremity shows forearm atrophy and depressed reflexes. The right lower extremity is hypertonic, with 3+ reflexes and positive Babinski sign.
  • Introduction
    • A progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons
      • there are sporadic (~90% of cases) and familial causes
      • sensation is intact
      • bowel and bladder are spared
    • Certain cases may be due to superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD-1) mutations
      • results in the generation of free radicals, eventually leading to cell death
    • Epidemiology
      • age of onset:
        • ~60 years of age in sporadic cases
        • ~50 years of age in familial cases
  • Presentation
    • Symptoms
      • progressive weakness affecting any segment of the body
        • asymmetric limb weakness (most common)
        • upper and lower motor neuron signs
          • upper motor neuron (UMN) signs
            • spasticity or stiffness
            • hyperreflexia
            • dysarthria
            • dysphagia
          • lower motor neuron (LMN) signs
            • atrophy
            • fasciculations
            • hyporeflexia
            • weakness
  • Evaluation
    • LMN signs determined by physical exam, electrophysiologic, or neuropathologic studies
    • UMN signs determined by physical exam
    • Symptom progression spread or signs
    • No other disease process can explain the patient's findings
  • Differential
    • Benign fasciculations
    • Spinal muscular atrophy
    • Poliomyelitis
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Syringomyelia
  • Treatment
    • Riluzole
      • only medication to slow disease progression
      • may decrease excitotoxic damage to neurons
    • Supportive treatment
  • Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
    • Prognosis
      • main cause of death is respiratory failure
    • Complications
      • weight loss
      • respiratory failure
      • sialorrhea
      • depression
1 of 0
1 of 2
Private Note

Attach Treatment Poll
Treatment poll is required to gain more useful feedback from members.
Please enter Question Text
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options
Please enter at least 2 unique options