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Updated: May 20 2019

Cerebral Cortex

  • Overview
  • Introduction
    • Anatomy
      • the cerebral cortex contains eminences (termed gyri) and spaces separating these eminences (termed sulci)
        • sulci include
          • lateral (Sylvian) fissure
            • separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobe
          • central sulcus
            • separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
            • note that anterior to this sulci is the precentral gyrus and posterior to the this sulci is the postcentral gyrus
              • the precentral gyrus is the primary motor cortex
              • the postcentral gyrus is the primary somatosensory cortex
          • parieto-occipital sulcus
            • which separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe and can best be seen medially
          • calcarine sulcus
            • which separates the cuneus from the lingual gyrus
        • the lobes of the cerebral cortex includes
          • frontal lobe
            • primary motor cortex and premotor cortex are involved in
              • contralateral movement
            • Broca area is involved in
              • producing speech
            • frontal eye fields are involved in
              • eye movement
            • prefrontal cortex is involved (this is a simplification) in
              • restraint
              • initiative
              • order
          • parietal lobe
            • primary somatosensory cortex is involved in
              • receiving contralateral sensory information
            • Wernicke area (junction of parietal and temporal lobes) is involved in
              • language comprehension
          • temporal lobe
            • primary auditory cortex is involved in
              • processing sound
          • occipital lobe
            • visual and visual association cortex is essential for
              • receiving and recognizing visual stimuli
    • Blood supply
      • the brain receives blood from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries
        • anastomoses of the internal carotid arteries and basilar artery results in the formation of the
          • circle of Willis
      • the blood supply will be simplified as follows
        • middle cerebral artery
          • supplies blood to most of the lateral surface of the brain as well as the
            • posterior limb and genu of the internal capsule
        • anterior cerebral artery
          • supplies the medial surface of the parietal and frontal lobe as well as the
            • anterior limb of the internal capsule
        • posterior cerebral artery
          • supplies the occipital lobes
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