Updated: 2/12/2018

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

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Snapshot
  • A 27-year-old male presents with an unprovoked convulsive episode. Medical history is noncontributory. Family history is significant for clear cell renal cell carcinoma in his father, resulting in death. The exact cause of his paternal grandfather’s death is unclear, but is thought to be due to a “bleed in the brain.” Head CT is performed.
Introduction
  • Autosomal dominant syndrome secondary to VHL gene mutation on chromosome 3
    • VHL gene product is a tumor suppressor gene
      • down regulates a transcription factor (HIF-1) involved in the expression of VEG-F and erythropoietin
    • leads to the development of:
      • hemangioblastomas of the CNS
        • most commonly in the cerebellum and retina
      • cysts in various organs (e.g., kidney, pancreas, liver)
Presentation
  • Associated with:
    • hemanioblastomas (most common)
    • clear cell renal cell carcinoma
    • retinal capillary hemangioblastoma
    • pheochromocytomas
    • endolymphatic sac tumors
    • pancreatic tumors
Evaluation
  • Genetic testing
    • usually on lymphocytes of the peripheral blood
  • Imaging techniques used to identify associated diseases
    • e.g., MRI/CT of the head, abdominal CT/MRI, and ophthalmic ultrasonography
Differential
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2 (MEN 2)
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Treatment
  • Medical management
    • surveillance
      • e.g., ophthalmologic exams for retinal hemangioblastomas
  • Surgical management
    • e.g., argon laser photocoagulation, partial nephrectomy, and neurosurgical excision in non-stable lesions
Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
  • Complications
    • includes renal cell carcinoma and hemangioblastoma
 

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Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

(M1.NE.27) A 21-year-old female presents to the family physician with 3 weeks of headaches, sweating, and palpitations. Her BP was 160/125 mmHg, and a 24-hour urine test revealed elevated vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and normetanephrine. Past medical history is notable for bilateral retinal hemangioblastomas, and family history is significant for three generations (patient, mother, and maternal grandfather) with similar symptoms. Genetic analysis revealed a mutation of a gene on chromosome 3p. Which of the following is the patient at risk of developing? Review Topic

QID: 107028
1

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma

33%

(6/18)

2

Retinoblastoma

50%

(9/18)

3

Osteosarcoma

6%

(1/18)

4

Breast cancer

0%

(0/18)

5

Ovarian cancer

0%

(0/18)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 1

(M1.NE.4671) A 35-year-old man presents to his primary care physician complaining of blood in his urine. He has also has had changes in his vision over the last several months. He reports a family history of renal cancer. The patient undergoes an abdominal CT, which shows lesions suspicious for renal cell carcinoma on both kidneys. MRI of the brain shows the findings in Figure A. Fundoscopic examination reveals the finding shown in Figure B. Which of the following genetic defects does this patient most likely have? Review Topic

QID: 107126
FIGURES:
1

Mutation on chromosome 3

64%

(41/64)

2

Mutation on chromosome 22

6%

(4/64)

3

Mutation on chromosome 17

12%

(8/64)

4

Increased trinucleotide repeats

5%

(3/64)

5

Mutation on chromosome 16

9%

(6/64)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 1
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