Updated: 5/20/2019

Cerebral Cortex

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Overview
 
 

Map of the cerebral cortex and important landmarks.

 
Introduction
  • Anatomy
    • the cerebral cortex contains eminences (termed gyri) and spaces separating these eminences (termed sulci)
      • sulci include
        • lateral (Sylvian) fissure
          • separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobe
        • central sulcus
          • separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
          • note that anterior to this sulci is the precentral gyrus and posterior to the this sulci is the postcentral gyrus
            • the precentral gyrus is the primary motor cortex
            • the postcentral gyrus is the primary somatosensory cortex
        • parieto-occipital sulcus
          • which separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe and can best be seen medially
        • calcarine sulcus
          • which separates the cuneus from the lingual gyrus
      • the lobes of the cerebral cortex includes
        • frontal lobe
          • primary motor cortex and premotor cortex are involved in
            • contralateral movement
          • Broca area is involved in 
            • producing speech
          • frontal eye fields are involved in
            • eye movement
          • prefrontal cortex is involved (this is a simplification) in
            • restraint
            • initiative
            • order
        • parietal lobe
          • primary somatosensory cortex is involved in
            • receiving contralateral sensory information
          • Wernicke area (junction of parietal and temporal lobes) is involved in
            • language comprehension
        • temporal lobe
          • primary auditory cortex is involved in
            • processing sound
        • occipital lobe
          • visual and visual association cortex is essential for
            • receiving and recognizing visual stimuli
  • Blood supply
    • the brain receives blood from the internal carotid and vertebral arteries
      • anastomoses of the internal carotid arteries and basilar artery results in the formation of the
        • circle of Willis
    • the blood supply will be simplified as follows
      • middle cerebral artery
        • supplies blood to most of the lateral surface of the brain as well as the
          • posterior limb and genu of the internal capsule
      • anterior cerebral artery
        • supplies the medial surface of the parietal and frontal lobe as well as the
          • anterior limb of the internal capsule
      • posterior cerebral artery
        • supplies the occipital lobes
 

 

 

 

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