Updated: 6/30/2018

Cerebellum

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Overview
 

Introduction
  • Function
    • to smoothly coordinate movement
    • to play a role in motor planning and balance
  • Anatomy
    • the cerebellum is derived from the metencephalon and is found
      • dorsally to the pons and rostral medulla which are attached by cerebellar peduncles
        • between the cerebellum and this portion of the brainstem you will find the
          • fourth ventricle
    • the cerebellum contains
      • the vermis and flocculonodular lobes which play an important role in
        • proximal and truncal muscle control (vermis)
        • vestibulo-ocular control (flocculonodular lobes)
      • cerebellar hemisphere can be divided into
        • intermediate hemisphere which plays an important role in
          • distal appendicular muscle control
        • lateral hemisphere which plays an important role in
          • motor planning
      • cerebellar peduncles
        • superior cerebellar peduncles
          • mainly carries output signals
        • middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles
          • mainly carries input signals to the cerebellum
    • deep cerebellar nuclei can be arranged from lateral → medial as
      • Dendate nuclei
      • Eboliform
      • Globos
      • Fastigial
      • mnemonic: "Dont Eat Greasy Food"
  • Circuitry
    • input
      • brain (via the pontocerebellar and climbing fiber) to the cerebellum via the
        • middle cerebellar peduncle
      • spinal cord (via the spinocerebellar and climbing fibers) to the cerebellum via the
        • inferior cerebellar peduncle (there are exceptions)
      • vestibular system to the cerebellum via
        • juxtarestiform body (in the inferior cerebellar peduncle)
    • output
      • all cerebellar outputs are carried by Purkinje cells which synapse in the
        • deep cerebellar nuclei or vestibular nuclei
          • which deep cerebellar nuclei the Purkinje cell synapse with is dependent on where the Purkinje cell arose from
            • Purkinje cells from
              • lateral cerebellum synapse to the dendate nucleus which
                • exits the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar  peduncle → contralateral VL of the thalamus → motor cortex and supplementary motor areas to influence the corticospinal system for motor planning
              • intermediate cerebellum synapses to the eboliform and globose nucleus
                • exits the cerebellum via the superior cerebllar pendcuncle → contralateral VL of the thalamus motor cortex and supplementary motor areas to influence the lateral corticospinal tract
              • vermis synapses to the fastigial nucleus
                • eventually influencing the medial motor system
              • flocculonodular lobe synapses to the vestibular nucleus
                • eventually leading to vestibulo-ocular control
  • Clinical correlate
    • cerebellar disorders typically results in
      • nausea, vomiting, and vertigo
      • slurred speech
      • uncoordinated limb movements
        • dysmetria (under- or over-shooting towards a target)
        • dysrhythmia
      • unsteadiness
    • lesion localization 
      • lesions to the vermis results in
        • truncal ataxia
      • lesions to the flocculonodular lobe results in
        • eye movement abnormalities
      • lesions to the cerebellar hemispheres results in
        • ipsilateral ataxia
  • Physical exam
    • physical exam maneuvers to test the cerebellum include
      • finger-to-nose and heel-to-shin test
      • finger tapping
      • rapid alternating movement
      • gait testing
        • truncal ataxia can present with
          • a wide-based and unsteady gait
      • testing for ocular dysmetria and nyastagmus
 

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Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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