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Updated: Jun 13 2020

Metabolic Syndrome

  • Introduction
    • Syndrome characterized by insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia and obesity
    • Associated conditions
      • polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Presentation
    • Physical exam
      • acanthosis nigricans
        • sign of hyperinsulinemia
      • hypertension (>130/85 mmHg)
      • obesity
        • as evaluated by waist circumference
  • Evaluation
    • Serology
      • hypertriglyceridemia (>150 mg/dL)
      • hyperglycemia (>110 mg/dL fasting)
      • decreased HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dL in men, <50 mg/dL in women)
    • BMI = weight in kg / (height in meters)2
  • Treatment
    • Medical with lifestyle changes
      • weight loss will
        • increase insulin sensitivity
        • decrease blood pressure
        • increase ghrelin level
        • decrease leptin level
      • diabetic medications (metformin)
      • antihypertensive agents (ACE-inhibitors or thiazides)
      • cholesterol-loweing agents (statins)
  • Prognosis, Prevention, and Complications
    • ↑ risk of Alzheimers, coronary artery disease
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