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Updated: Feb 28 2020

Thyroid Hormones

  • Overview
    • General
      • two forms (T3 and T4)
        • T3 is more potent than T4
        • rT3 is inactive
      • contain iodine
      • transported in blood bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
    • Function
      • bone growth
      • CNS maturation
        • recall cretinism involves short stature and mental retardation
      • increase the basal metabolic rate
        • via ↑ Na+/K+-ATPase activity
        • results in ↑ O2 consumption, RR, and body temperature
      • ↑ β1 receptors in heart
        • results in ↑ CO, HR, SV, and contractility
          • recall the importance of treating hyperthyroidism with β-blockers
      • ↑ glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis
    • Synthesis
      • created in the thyroid gland
      • stored in thyroid follicles
      • thyroid peroxidase responsible for oxidation, organification, and coupling
        • forms I2 via oxidation of I-
        • forms thyroglobulin via organification of I2
      • T4 converted to T3 in peripheral tissues by outer ring deiodinase
      • T4 converted to rT3 by inner ring deiodinase
    • Regulation
      • TRH released from the hypothalamus to stimulates TSH release from the pituitary
        • TSH stimulates follicular cells to produce T3 and T4
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