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Updated: Oct 24 2022

Nuclear / Cytoplasmic-Acting Hormones

  • Overview
    • Properties
      • solubility
        • lipophilic
        • insoluble in plasma
      • transportation
        • must circulate bound to globulin proteins
        • changes in amount of globulin hormone alter the free hormone level but does not alter the total hormone level
          • free hormone level is what determines end organ effects
      • speed of action
        • slow due to time for transcription/translation
    • Mechanism
      • hormone binds to receptor in cytoplasm (sex hormones, cortisol, and aldosterone) or nucleus (thyroid) resulting in a conformation change allowing DNA binding
        • in the case of steroid hormones via zinc finger motifs
      • hormone-receptor complex binds to enhancer-like element in DNA
      • gene transcription is stimulated
    • Examples
      • progesterone
      • estrogen
      • testosterone
      • cortisol
      • aldosterone
      • T3/T4
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