Updated: 10/2/2018

Hypothyroidism vs Hyperthyroidism

Topic
Review Topic
0
0
Questions
6
0
0
Evidence
5
0
0
Presentation
    Symptoms/Physical Exam
    Hypothyroidism
    Hyperthyroidism
    • Cold intolerance (↓ heat production)
    • Heat intolerance (↑ heat production)
    • Weight gain
    • ↓ appetite
    • Weight loss
    • ↑ appetite
    • Hypoactivityl
    • Lethargy
    • Fatigue
    • Weakness
    • Hyperactivity
    • Constipation
    • Diarrhea
    • ↓ reflexes
    • ↑ reflexes
    • Bradycardia
    • Tachycardia, palpitations, arrhythmias 
    • Dry, cool skin
    • Coarse, brittle hair
    • Warm, moist skin
    • Fine hair
    • Diastolic hypertension (Na/H
      2
      O
      retention)
    • Systolic hypertension
    • Myxedema (facial/periorbital)
    • Osteoporosis


Evaluation
 
    Labs
    Hypothyroidism
    Hyperthyroidism
    • ↑ TSH (best first test)   
    • ↓ TSH (best first test)
    • ↓ total T4
    • ↑ total T4
    • ↓ free T4
    • ↑ free T4
    • Hyper cholesterolemia (↓ LDL receptor synthesis)
    • Hypo cholesterolemia (↑ LDL receptor synthesis)
    • Elevated serum creatine kinase
     -

Treatment
 
    Treatment
    Hypothyroidism
    Hyperthyroidism
    • Levothyroxine
    • Thionamides
    • Ablative 131I therapy
 

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Questions (6)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
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(M1.EC.75) A 34-year-old female presents to her primary care physician complaining of fatigue. Over the last three months she has experienced decreased energy and gained 7 pounds. Review of systems is negative for symptoms of depression but is positive for constipation, myalgias, and cold intolerance. Physical exam is notable for delayed deep tendon reflex relaxation. Vital signs are as follows: T 37.1 C, HR 61, BP 132/88, RR 16, and SpO2 100%. Which of the following is the best initial screening test for this patient? Review Topic

QID: 106821
1

Level of anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies

0%

(0/19)

2

Morning cortisol and plasma ACTH

5%

(1/19)

3

Serum Free T4

21%

(4/19)

4

Serum TSH

74%

(14/19)

5

Hemoglobin and hematocrit

0%

(0/19)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 4

(M1.EC.69) A 58-year-old Caucasian female presents to her primary care physician with concerns about several recent health changes. The patient has recently gained weight and can't seem to exercise like she used to. She also notes that her thinking seems slow. Physical examination shows thickened, dry skin. Serum analysis confirms the physician's suspicions. Which of the following findings was most helpful in the diagnosis? Review Topic

QID: 100370
1

High T4 and T3

10%

(1/10)

2

Low T4 and T3

50%

(5/10)

3

High TSH

40%

(4/10)

4

Hypercholesterolemia

0%

(0/10)

5

Low TSH

0%

(0/10)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 3

(M1.EC.81) A 25-year-old female presents with recent muscle weakness, fatigue, and constipation. Physical examination reveals a bradycardic patient with cool, dry skin. Which of the following lab values would be most likely to be present with this patient's presentation? Review Topic

QID: 100382
1

Elevated serum calcitonin

2%

(2/95)

2

Elevated serum CK

18%

(17/95)

3

Low serum TSH

34%

(32/95)

4

Activating TSH-receptor immunoglobulins

20%

(19/95)

5

Hypocalcemia

24%

(23/95)

M1

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PREFERRED RESPONSE 2
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