Updated: 1/22/2020

Nuclear / Cytoplasmic-Acting Hormones

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Overview
  • Properties 
    • solubility
      • lipophilic
      • insoluble in plasma
    • transportation
      • must circulate bound to globulin proteins
      • changes in amount of globulin hormone alter the free hormone level but does not alter the total hormone level
        • free hormone level is what determines end organ effects
    • speed of action
      • slow due to time for transcription/translation
  • Mechanism 
    • hormone binds to receptor in cytoplasm (sex hormones, cortisol, and aldosterone) or nucleus (thyroid) resulting in a conformation change allowing DNA binding
      • in the case of steroid hormones via zinc finger motifs
    • hormone-receptor complex binds to enhancer-like element in DNA
    • gene transcription is stimulated 
  • Examples
    • progesterone
    • estrogen
    • testosterone
    • cortisol
    • aldosterone
    • T3/T4

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