Updated: 3/13/2018

Tourette Syndrome

Topic
Review Topic
0
0
Questions
2
0
0
Evidence
2
0
0
Videos
1
Snapshot
  • An 11-year-old male is brought into your clinic by his parents due to odd behavior that they have noticed in their child for the past several years.  Often times they have noticed, as have the patient's teacher, that he will yell out certain words, or phrases inappropriately and at odd times.  In addtion he has strange "spells," where he repetitively sniffs for extended periods of time.
Overview
  • Definition (DSM-5)
    • motor and vocal tics that last for > 1 year
      • sudden, rapid, recurrent, and nonrhythmic
      • tics may wax and wane in frequency
      • typically no tic-free period longer than 3 months
    • onset of symptoms occurs before 18 years of age
    • tics are NOT substance induced and not due to a coexistent general medical condition 
    • tics include the following:
      • simple motor - blinking, nose sniffing, neck twitching, jerking/posturing of extremities
      • complex motor - hitting, jumping, shaking, touching, performing a motor task
      • simple vocal - grunting, coughing, throat clearing
      • complex vocal - words or phrases
        • coprolalia (obscene speech) seen in only a minority of patients
  • Epidemiology
    • correlation with obsessive-compulsive disorder and ADHD
    • most commonly manifests in pre-adolescents and tics typically diminish in severity and frequency by young-adulthood
    • 0.1-1% of the general population
  • Treatment
    • antipsychotics (e.g. haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, fluphenazine, pimozide) - most effective for complex/multiple tics
      • side effect profile includes sedation, weight gain, dystonic reaction, tardive dyskinesia
    • tetrabenazine 
      • inhibits VMAT and packaging of neurotransmitters into vesicles
        • these causes degradation of these neurotransmitters (dopamine) by MAO
        • presynaptic dopamine depleting agent
    • α2 agonists - clonidine and guanfacine 
      • first-line agent due to effective tic supression and lower risk of side effects compared to antipsychotics
      • Gi coupled, inhibits production of neurotransmitters such as NE
    • behavioral habit reversal therapy
 

Please rate topic.

Average 3.4 of 5 Ratings

Thank you for rating! Please vote below and help us build the most advanced adaptive learning platform in medicine

The complexity of this topic is appropriate for?
How important is this topic for board examinations?
How important is this topic for clinical practice?
Questions (2)
Lab Values
Blood, Plasma, Serum Reference Range
ALT 8-20 U/L
Amylase, serum 25-125 U/L
AST 8-20 U/L
Bilirubin, serum (adult) Total // Direct 0.1-1.0 mg/dL // 0.0-0.3 mg/dL
Calcium, serum (Ca2+) 8.4-10.2 mg/dL
Cholesterol, serum Rec: < 200 mg/dL
Cortisol, serum 0800 h: 5-23 μg/dL //1600 h:
3-15 μg/dL
2000 h: ≤ 50% of 0800 h
Creatine kinase, serum Male: 25-90 U/L
Female: 10-70 U/L
Creatinine, serum 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Electrolytes, serum  
Sodium (Na+) 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-) 95-105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+) 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-28 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+) 1.5-2.0 mEq/L
Estriol, total, serum (in pregnancy)  
24-28 wks // 32-36 wks 30-170 ng/mL // 60-280 ng/mL
28-32 wk // 36-40 wks 40-220 ng/mL // 80-350 ng/mL
Ferritin, serum Male: 15-200 ng/mL
Female: 12-150 ng/mL
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum/plasma Male: 4-25 mIU/mL
Female: premenopause: 4-30 mIU/mL
midcycle peak: 10-90 mIU/mL
postmenopause: 40-250
pH 7.35-7.45
PCO2 33-45 mmHg
PO2 75-105 mmHg
Glucose, serum Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL
2-h postprandial:<120 mg/dL
Growth hormone - arginine stimulation Fasting: <5 ng/mL
Provocative stimuli: > 7ng/mL
Immunoglobulins, serum  
IgA 76-390 mg/dL
IgE 0-380 IU/mL
IgG 650-1500 mg/dL
IgM 40-345 mg/dL
Iron 50-170 μg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum 45-90 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, serum/plasma Male: 6-23 mIU/mL
Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL
midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL
postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL
Osmolality, serum 275-295 mOsmol/kd H2O
Parathyroid hormone, serume, N-terminal 230-630 pg/mL
Phosphatase (alkaline), serum (p-NPP at 30° C) 20-70 U/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), serum 3.0-4.5 mg/dL
Prolactin, serum (hPRL) < 20 ng/mL
Proteins, serum  
Total (recumbent) 6.0-7.8 g/dL
Albumin 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Globulin 2.3-3.5 g/dL
Thyroid-stimulating hormone, serum or plasma .5-5.0 μU/mL
Thyroidal iodine (123I) uptake 8%-30% of administered dose/24h
Thyroxine (T4), serum 5-12 μg/dL
Triglycerides, serum 35-160 mg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), serum (RIA) 115-190 ng/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3) resin uptake 25%-35%
Urea nitrogen, serum 7-18 mg/dL
Uric acid, serum 3.0-8.2 mg/dL
Hematologic Reference Range
Bleeding time 2-7 minutes
Erythrocyte count Male: 4.3-5.9 million/mm3
Female: 3.5-5.5 million mm3
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren) Male: 0-15 mm/h
Female: 0-20 mm/h
Hematocrit Male: 41%-53%
Female: 36%-46%
Hemoglobin A1c ≤ 6 %
Hemoglobin, blood Male: 13.5-17.5 g/dL
Female: 12.0-16.0 g/dL
Hemoglobin, plasma 1-4 mg/dL
Leukocyte count and differential  
Leukocyte count 4,500-11,000/mm3
Segmented neutrophils 54%-62%
Bands 3%-5%
Eosinophils 1%-3%
Basophils 0%-0.75%
Lymphocytes 25%-33%
Monocytes 3%-7%
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin 25.4-34.6 pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 31%-36% Hb/cell
Mean corpuscular volume 80-100 μm3
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 25-40 seconds
Platelet count 150,000-400,000/mm3
Prothrombin time 11-15 seconds
Reticulocyte count 0.5%-1.5% of red cells
Thrombin time < 2 seconds deviation from control
Volume  
Plasma Male: 25-43 mL/kg
Female: 28-45 mL/kg
Red cell Male: 20-36 mL/kg
Female: 19-31 mL/kg
Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Range
Cell count 0-5/mm3
Chloride 118-132 mEq/L
Gamma globulin 3%-12% total proteins
Glucose 40-70 mg/dL
Pressure 70-180 mm H2O
Proteins, total < 40 mg/dL
Sweat Reference Range
Chloride 0-35 mmol/L
Urine  
Calcium 100-300 mg/24 h
Chloride Varies with intake
Creatinine clearance Male: 97-137 mL/min
Female: 88-128 mL/min
Estriol, total (in pregnancy)  
30 wks 6-18 mg/24 h
35 wks 9-28 mg/24 h
40 wks 13-42 mg/24 h
17-Hydroxycorticosteroids Male: 3.0-10.0 mg/24 h
Female: 2.0-8.0 mg/24 h
17-Ketosteroids, total Male: 8-20 mg/24 h
Female: 6-15 mg/24 h
Osmolality 50-1400 mOsmol/kg H2O
Oxalate 8-40 μg/mL
Potassium Varies with diet
Proteins, total < 150 mg/24 h
Sodium Varies with diet
Uric acid Varies with diet
Body Mass Index (BMI) Adult: 19-25 kg/m2
Calculator

Question locked
Sorry, this question is for
PEAK Premium Subscribers only
Upgrade to PEAK

(M1.PY.16) A 12-year-old boy is brought to a psychiatrist by his mother upon referral from his pediatrician. The mother describes that for the past 2 years her son has experienced episodes of repetitive blinking and sudden jerking of the arms. Additionally, she notes that he often clears his throat and occasionally makes grunting noises. These symptoms have waxed and waned in frequency, but they have persisted for the past 2 years since they first developed. The patient is otherwise healthy without any coexisting medical issues. Which of the following agents would be effective at reducing the severity and frequency of this patient's current symptoms? Review Topic

QID: 102957
1

Baclofen

7%

(5/72)

2

Valproic acid

33%

(24/72)

3

Fluphenazine

38%

(27/72)

4

Sertraline

12%

(9/72)

5

Gabapentin

7%

(5/72)

M1

Select Answer to see Preferred Response

PREFERRED RESPONSE 3
ARTICLES (2)
VIDEOS (1)
Topic COMMENTS (6)
Private Note